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    1. Medcore 추천도서

    Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 21/e(2Vols)

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    상품명 Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics 21/e(2Vols)
    정   가 200,000원
    판매가 157,000원
    저   자 Robert M. Kliegman MD
    출판사 Elsevier
    ISBN   9780323529501
    출판일 2019.04
    판   형 Hardcover
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    판   수 21/e
    면   수 3876 page
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    의학서적전문 "성보의학서적"의 신간의학도서입니다.

    Welcome to the 21st Edition of Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics – the reference of choice among pediatricians, pediatric residents, and others involved in the care of young patients. This fully revised edition continues to provide the breadth and depth of knowledge you expect from Nelson, while also keeping you up to date with new advances in the science and art of pediatric practice. Authoritative and reader-friendly, it delivers the information you need in a concise, easy-to-use format for everyday reference and study. From rapidly changing diagnostic and treatment protocols to new technologies to the wide range of biologic, psychologic, and social problems faced by children today, this comprehensive 2-volume reference keeps you on the cutting edge of the very best in pediatric care.

    • Includes more than 70 new chapters, including Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases, Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders, Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, Zika, update on Ebola, Epigenetics, Autoimmune Encephalitis, Global Health, Racism, Media Violence, Strategies for Health Behavior Change, Positive Parenting, and many more.
    • Features hundreds of new figures and tables throughout for visual clarity and quick reference.
    • Offers new and expanded information on CRISPR gene editing; LGBT health care; gun violence; vaccinations; immune treatment with CAR-T cells; new technology in imaging and genomics; new protocols in cancer, genetics, immunology, and pulmonary medicine; and much more.
    • Provides fresh perspectives from four new associate editors: Nathan J. Blum of The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; Karen Wilson of Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York; Samir S. Shah of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center; and Robert C. Tasker of Boston Children’s Hospital.
    • Provides regular updates online, written exclusively for Nelson.
    • Remains your indispensable source for definitive, evidence-based answers on every aspect of pediatric care.
    • Enhanced eBook version included with purchase.
    Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.

    -도서목차-

    ChapTitle

    Overview of Pediatrics

    Child Health Disparities

    Racism

    Global Health

    Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children

    Safety in Healthcare for Children

    Ethics in Pediatric Care

    Pediatric Palliative Care

    Domestic and International Adoption

    Foster and Kinship Care

    Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child

    Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care

    Maximizing Children’s Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling

    Injury Control

    Impact of Violence on Children

    Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence

    Media Violence

    Effects of War on Children

    Child Trafficking

    Abused and Neglected Children

    Sexual Abuse

    Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy)

    Strategies for Health Behavior Change

    Developmental and Behavioral Theories

    Positive Parenting and Support

    Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development

    The Newborn

    The First Year

    Infant Crying and Colic

    The Second Year

    The Preschool Years

    Middle Childhood

    Adolescence

    Assessment of Growth

    Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance

    Childcare

    Loss, Separation, and Bereavement

    Sleep Medicine

    Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing

    Psychopharmacology

    Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Rumination and Pica

    Rumination Disorder

    Pica

    Motor Disorders and Habits

    Tic Disorders

    Stereotypic Movement Disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Major and Other Depressive Disorders

    Bipolar and Related Disorders

    Suicide and Attempted Suicide

    Eating Disorders

    Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders

    Tantrums and Breath-holding spells

    Lying, Stealing and Truancy

    Aggression

    Self-injurious behavior

    Childhood Psychoses

    Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

    Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy

    Catatonia in Children and Adolescents

    Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood

    Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Dyslexia

    Math and Writing Disabilities

    Math Disabilities

    Writing Disabilities

    Language Development and Communication Disorders

    Child-Onset Fluency Disorder

    Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability

    Intellectual Disability with Regression

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Nutritional Requirements

    Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Nutrition, Food Security, and Health

    Refeeding Syndrome

    Failure to Thrive

    Overweight and Obesity

    Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess

    Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    Niacin (Vitamin B3)

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Biotin

    Folate

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess

    Vitamin E Deficiency

    Vitamin K Deficiency

    Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies

    Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Composition of Body Fluids

    Regulation of Osmolality and Volume

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Magnesium

    Phosphorus

    Acid-Base Balance

    Maintenance and Replacement Therapy

    Deficit Therapy

    Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders

    Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics

    Principles of Drug Therapy

    Anesthesia and Perioperative Care

    Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Sedation and Procedural Pain

    Pediatric Pain Management

    Poisoning

    Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine

    Emergency Medical Services for Children

    Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient

    Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment

    Principles Applicable to the Developing World

    Triage of the Acutely Ill Child

    Resuscitation

    Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma

    Spinal Cord Injuries in Children

    Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations

    Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization

    Brain Death

    Syncope

    POTS

    Shock

    Respiratory Distress and Failure

    Mechanical Ventilation

    Long-term Mechanical Ventilation

    Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)

    Drowning and Submersion Injury

    Burn injuries

    Cold Injuries

    Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice

    Genetic Counseling

    Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders

    The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine

    The Human Genome

    Patterns of Genetic Transmission

    Cytogenetics

    Methods of Chromosome Analysis

    Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number

    Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure

    Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy

    Fragile Chromosome Sites

    Mosaicism

    Chromosome Instability Syndromes

    Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting

    Genetics of Common Disorders

    Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders

    Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease

    Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases

    An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids

    Phenylalanine

    Tyrosine

    Methionine

    Cysteine/Cystine

    Tryptophan

    Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias

    Glycine

    Serine

    Proline

    Glutamic Acid

    Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters

    Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine)

    Histidine

    Lysine

    N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease)

    Defects in Metabolism of Lipids

    Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation

    Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids

    Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport

    Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders)

    Mucolipidoses

    Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates

    Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Defects in Galactose Metabolism

    Defects in Fructose Metabolism

    Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis

    Defects in Pentose Metabolism

    Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation

    Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation

    Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders

    Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome

    The Porphyrias

    Hypoglycemia

    Overview of Mortality and Morbidity

    The Newborn Infant

    History in Neonatal Pediatrics

    Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant

    Routine Newborn Care

    Circumcision

    Parent-Infant Bonding

    High-Risk Pregnancies

    The Fetus

    Fetal Growth and Maturity

    Fetal Distress

    Maternal Disease and the Fetus

    Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus

    Teratogens

    Radiation

    Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease

    Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease

    Fetal Intervention and Surgery

    The High-Risk Infant

    Multiple Gestation Pregnancies

    Extreme and Very Preterm Infants

    Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants

    Term and Post-Term Infants

    Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge

    Infant Transport

    Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period

    Hyperthermia

    Neontal Cold Injury

    Edema

    Hypocalcemia (Tetany)

    Hypermanganazemia

    Nervous System Disorders

    The Cranium

    Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Spine and Spinal Cord

    Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies

    Respiratory Tract Disorders

    Transition to Pulmonary Respiration

    Apnea

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

    BPD

    PDA

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia)

    Meconium Aspiration

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation)

    Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Foramen of Morgagni Hernia

    Paraesophageal Hernia

    Eventration

    Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium)

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage

    Digestive System Disorders

    Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction

    Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

    Kernicterus

    Blood Disorders

    Anemia in the Newborn Infant

    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)

    Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia)

    Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant

    The Umbilicus

    Abstinence Syndromes

    Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal)

    Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes

    Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    The Endocrine System

    Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Dysmorphology

    Epidemiology of Infections

    Healthcare−Associated Infections (HAI)

    Congenital Infections

    Adolescent Physical and Social Development

    Gender and Sexual Identity

    Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents

    Transgender Care

    The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems

    Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents

    Legal Issues

    Screening Procedures

    Transitioning to Adult Care

    Violent Behavior

    Substance Abuse

    Alcohol

    Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    Marijuana

    Inhalants

    Hallucinogens

    Cocaine

    Amphetamines

    Stimulant Abuse and Diversion

    Opiates

    Bath salts and other drugs of abuse

    The Breast

    Menstrual Problems

    Amenorrhea

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Dysmenorrhea

    Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Contraception

    Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)

    Other Progestin-only Methods

    Combined Hormonal Contraceptives

    Emergency Contraception (EC)

    Dual Protection

    Other Barrier Methods

    Other Methods

    Adolescent Pregnancy

    Adolescent Sexual Assault

    Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency

    Lymphocyte Development and Function

    Primary Defects of Antibody Production

    Treatment of B-Cell Defects

    Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity

    Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Combined Immunodeficiency

    Defects of Innate Immunity

    Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency

    Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation

    Neutrophils

    Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells

    Eosinophils

    Disorders of Phagocyte Function

    Leukopenia

    Leukocytosis

    The Complement System

    Disorders of the Complement System

    Evaluation of the Complement System

    Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components

    Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins

    Secondary Disorders of Complement

    Treatment of Complement Disorders

    Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors

    Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease

    Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease

    Diagnosis of Allergic Disease

    Allergic Rhinitis

    Childhood Asthma

    Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)

    Insect Allergy

    Ocular Allergies

    Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema

    Anaphylaxis

    Serum Sickness

    Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods

    Adverse Reactions to Drugs

    Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease

    Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides

    Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Neonatal Lupus

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon

    Behçet Disease

    Sjögren Syndrome

    The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Amyloidosis

    Sarcoidosis

    Kawasaki Disease

    Vasculitis Syndromes

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    Takayasu Arteritis

    Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa

    ANCA-associated vasculitis

    Other Vasculitic Syndromes

    Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes

    Growing Pains

    Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Fibromyalgia

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Erythromelalgia

    Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis

    Diagnostic Microbiology

    The Microbiome and Pediatric Health

    Immunization Practices

    International Immunization Practices

    Infection Prevention and Control

    Childcare and Communicable Diseases

    Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally

    Fever

    Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos)

    Fever in the Older Child

    Fever of Unknown Origin

    Infections in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies

    Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infection Associated with Medical Devices

    Principles of Antibacterial Therapy

    Staphylococcus

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

    Group A Streptococcus

    Rheumatic Fever

    Group B Streptococcus

    Non-Group A or B Streptococci

    Enterococcus

    Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

    Listeria monocytogenes

    Actinomyces

    Nocardia

    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

    Kingella kingae

    Haemophilus influenzae

    Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

    Moraxella catarrhalis

    Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)

    Salmonella

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis

    Enteric Fever (Typhoid Fever)

    Shigella

    Escherichia coli

    Cholera

    Campylobacter

    Yersinia

    Yersinia enterocolitica

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas

    Aeromonas

    Plesiomonas shigelloides

    Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas

    Pseudomonas

    Burkholderia Cepacia Complex

    Stenotrophomonas

    Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

    Brucella

    Legionella

    Bartonella

    Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae)

    Bartonellosis (Bartonella bacilliformis)

    Trench Fever (Bartonella quintana)

    Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis Hepatis (Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana)

    Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

    Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)

    Clostridium difficile Infection

    Other Anaerobic Infections

    Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy

    Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

    Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections

    Yaws (Treponema pertenue)

    Bejel (Endemic Syphilis: Treponema pallidum endemicum)

    Pinta (Treponema carateum)

    Leptospira

    Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)

    Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum)

    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae

    Chlamydia trachomatis

    Trachoma

    Genital Tract Infections

    Conjunctivitis and Pneumonia in Newborns

    Lymphogranuloma Venereum

    Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

    Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)

    Mediterranean Spotted Fever or Boutonneuse Fever (Rickettsia conorii)

    Rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari)

    Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    Typhus Group Rickettsioses

    Murine (endemic or flea-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia typhi)

    Epidemic (louse-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii)

    Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmosis

    Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

    Principles of Antifungal Therapy

    Candida

    Neonatal Infections

    Infections in Immunocompetent Children and Adolescents

    Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Adolescents

    Cryptococcus neoformans

    Malassezia

    Aspergillus

    Allergic Disease (Hypersensitivity Syndromes)

    Saprophytic (Noninvasive) Syndromes

    Invasive Disease

    Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)

    Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)

    Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis)

    Pneumocystis Jirovecii

    Principles of Antiviral Therapy

    Measles

    Rubella

    Mumps

    Polioviruses

    Nonpolio Enteroviruses

    Parvoviruses

    Herpes Simplex Virus

    Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

    Epstein-Barr Virus

    Cytomegalovirus

    Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)

    Human Herpesvirus 8

    Influenza Viruses

    Parainfluenza Viruses

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Human Metapneumovirus

    Adenoviruses

    Rhinoviruses

    Coronaviruses

    Rotaviruses, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus

    Human Papillomaviruses

    Arboviral Infections

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Western Equine Encephalitis

    St. Louis Encephalitis

    West Nile Encephalitis

    Powassan Encephalitis

    LaCrosse and California Encephalitis

    Colorado Tick Fever

    Chikungunya Fever

    Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

    Japanese Encephalitis

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis

    Zika Virus

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Yellow Fever

    Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Rabies

    Polyomaviruses

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy

    Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    Amebiasis

    Giardiasis and Balantidiasis

    Giardia lamblia

    Balantidiasis

    Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia

    Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

    Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)

    African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei complex)

    American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)

    Malaria (Plasmodium)

    Babesiosis (Babesia)

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)

    Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)

    Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichuria)

    Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)

    Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)

    Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)

    Other Tissue Nematodes

    Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)

    Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)

    Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)

    Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)

    Adult Tapeworm Infections

    Cysticercosis

    Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)

    Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena

    Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders

    Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth

    Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions

    Malocclusion

    Cleft Lip and Palate

    Syndromes with Oral Manifestations

    Dental Caries

    Periodontal Diseases

    Dental Trauma

    Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues

    Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws

    Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus

    Common Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Aids

    Congenital Anomalies

    Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts

    Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus

    Dysmotility

    Hiatal Hernia

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non-GERD Esophagitis

    Esophageal Perforation

    Esophageal Varices

    Ingestions

    Foreign Bodies in the Esophagus

    Caustic Ingestions

    Normal Development, Structure, and Function

    Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach

    Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

    Congenital Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Gastric Duplication

    Gastric Volvulus

    Hypertrophic Gastropathy

    Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation

    Duodenal Obstruction

    Jejunal and Ileal Atresia and Obstruction

    Malrotation

    Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Intestinal Duplication

    Meckel Diverticulum and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease

    Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy

    Encopresis and Functional Constipation

    Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung Disease)

    Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Wilkie Syndrome, Cast Syndrome, Arteriomesenteric Duodenal Compression Syndrome)

    Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Ileus

    Adhesions

    Intussusception

    Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Foreign Bodies and Bezoars

    Foreign Bodies in the Stomach and Intestine

    Bezoars

    Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children

    Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Crohn Disease (Regional Enteritis, Regional lleitis, Granulomatous Colitis)

    Very Early Onset IBD

    Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Disorders of Malabsorption

    Evaluation of Children with Suspected Intestinal Malabsorption

    Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)

    Other Malabsorptive Syndromes

    Intestinal Infections and Infestations Associated with Malabsorption

    Immunodeficiency Disorders

    Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease

    Short Bowel Syndrome

    Chronic Malnutrition

    Enzyme Deficiencies

    Liver and Biliary Disorders Causing Malabsorption

    Rare Inborn Defects Causing Malabsorption

    Malabsorption in Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Malabsorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure

    Acute Gastroenteritis in Children

    Traveler's Diarrhea

    Chronic Diarrhea

    Diarrhea from Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Functional Abdominal pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal pain)

    Cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine

    Acute Appendicitis

    Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum

    Anorectal Malformations

    Anal Fissure

    Perianal Abscess and Fistula

    Hemorrhoids

    Rectal Mucosal Prolapse

    Pilonidal Sinus and Abscess

    Tumors of the Digestive Tract

    Inguinal Hernias

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology

    Anatomic Abnormalities

    Physiology

    Pancreatic Function Tests

    Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas

    Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Pancreatitis

    Acute Pancreatitis

    Chronic Pancreatitis

    Pseudocyst of the Pancreas

    Pancreatic Tumors

    Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System

    Manifestations of Liver Disease

    Evaluation of Patients with Possible Liver Dysfunction

    Cholestasis

    Neonatal Cholestasis

    Cholestasis in the Older Child

    Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Inherited Deficient Conjugation of Bilirubin (Familial Nonhemolytic Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia)

    Wilson Disease

    Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    Neonatal Iron Storage Disease

    Miscellaneous Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Viral Hepatitis

    Liver Abscess

    Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Mitochondrial Hepatopathies

    Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury

    Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver

    Diseases of the Gallbladder

    Portal Hypertension and Varices

    Liver Transplantation

    Malformations

    Ascites

    Chylous Ascites

    Peritonitis

    Acute Primary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Localized Peritonitis (Peritoneal Abscess)

    Epigastric Hernia

    Incisional Hernia

    Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease

    Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse (SUPC)

    BRUE / ALTE

    Congenital Disorders of the Nose

    Acquired Disorders of the Nose

    Foreign Body

    Epistaxis

    Nasal Polyps

    The Common Cold

    Sinusitis

    Acute Pharyngitis

    Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess

    Tonsils and Adenoids

    Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)

    Infectious Upper Airway Obstruction

    Bacterial Tracheitis

    Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Laryngomalacia

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Congenital Laryngeal Webs and Atresia

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Laryngoceles and Saccular Cysts

    Posterior Laryngeal Cleft and Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft

    Vascular and Cardiac Anomalies

    Tracheal Stenoses, Webs, and Atresia

    Foregut Cysts

    Tracheomalacia and Bronchomalacia

    Foreign Bodies of the Airway

    Laryngeal Foreign Bodies

    Tracheal Foreign Bodies

    Bronchial Foreign Bodies

    Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Acquired Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia

    Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Vocal Nodules

    Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Vascular Anomalies

    Other Laryngeal Neoplasms

    Tracheal Neoplasms

    Bronchial Tumors

    Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis

    Wheezing in Infants: Bronchiolitis

    Bronchitis

    Plastic Bronchitis

    Emphysema and Overinflation

    α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema

    Other Distal Airway Diseases

    Bronciolitis Obliterans

    Follicular Bronchitis

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    Congenital Disorders of the Lung

    Pulmonary Agenesis and Aplasia

    Pulmonary Hypoplasia

    Congenital Cystic Malformation

    Pulmonary Sequestration

    Bronchogenic Cysts

    Congenital Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia

    Lung Hernia

    Other Congenital Malformations of the Lung

    Pulmonary Edema

    Aspiration Syndromes

    Chronic Recurrent Aspiration

    Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonia

    Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease

    Granulomatous Lung Disease

    Eosinophilic Lung Disease

    Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Pleural Effusion and Empyema

    Dry or Plastic Pleural Effusion

    Serofibrinous or Serosanguineous Pleural Effusion

    Empyema

    Bronchiectasis

    Pulmonary Abscess

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)

    Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood

    Inherited Disorders of Surfactant Metabolism

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage

    Pulmonary Embolus and Infarction

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemoptysis

    Atelectasis

    Pulmonary Tumors

    Pneumothorax

    Pneumomediastinum

    Hydrothorax

    Hemothorax

    Chylothorax

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function

    Pectus Excavatum (Funnel Chest)

    Pectus Carinatum and Sternal Clefts

    Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (Thoracic-Pelvic-Phalangeal Dystrophy)

    Achondroplasia

    Kyphoscoliosis: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congential Scoliosis

    Congenital Rib Anomalies

    Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency

    Neuromuscular Diseases

    Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Other Conditions

    Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    Cardiac Development

    Early Cardiac Morphogenesis

    Cardiac Looping

    Cardiac Septation

    Aortic Arch Development

    Cardiac Differentiation

    Developmental Changes in Cardiac Function

    The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition

    The Fetal Circulation

    The Transitional Circulation

    The Neonatal Circulation

    History and Physical Examination

    Laboratory Evaluation

    Radiologic Assessment

    Electrocardiography

    Hematologic Data

    Echocardiography

    Exercise Testing

    MRI, MRA, CT, and Radionuclide Studies

    Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization

    Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease

    Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

    Atrial Septal Defect

    Ostium Secundum Defect

    Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Atrioventricular Septal Defects (Ostium Primum and Atrioventricular Canal or Endocardial Cushion Defects)

    Ventricular Septal Defect

    Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Aortopulmonary Window Defect

    Coronary Artery Fistula

    Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Obstructive Lesions

    Pulmonary Valve Stenosis with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Infundibular Pulmonary Stenosis and Double-Chamber Right Ventricle

    Pulmonary Stenosis in Combination with an Intracardiac Shunt

    Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis

    Aortic Stenosis

    Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation with Ventricular Septal Defect

    Coarctation with Other Cardiac Anomalies and Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Congenital Mitral Stenosis

    Pulmonary Venous Hypertension

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Regurgitant Lesions

    Pulmonary Valvular Insufficiency and Congenital Absence of the Pulmonary Valve

    Congenital Mitral Insufficiency

    Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Tricuspid Regurgitation

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation of the Critically Ill Neonate with Cyanosis and Respiratory Distress

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions: Lesions Associated with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Tetraology of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia

    Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Tricuspid Atresia

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    Ebstein Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Lesions Associated with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect

    L-Transposition of the Great Arteries (Corrected Transposition)

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Without Pulmonary Stenosis

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Malposition of the Great Arteries (Taussig-Bing Anomaly)

    Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Truncus Arteriosus

    Single Ventricle (Double-Inlet Ventricle, Univentricular Heart)

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Abnormal Positions of the Heart and the Heterotaxy Syndromes (Asplenia, Polysplenia)

    Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations

    Anomalies of the Aortic Arch

    Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries

    Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula

    Ectopia Cordis

    Diverticulum of the Left Ventricle

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Pulmonary Vascular Disease (Eisenmenger Syndrome)

    General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart

    Principles of Antiarrhythmic Therapy

    Sinus Arrhythmias and Extrasystoles

    Supraventricular Tachycardia

    Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

    Long Q-T Syndromes

    Sinus Node Dysfunction

    AV Blcok

    Sudden Death

    Infective Endocarditis

    Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Diseases of the Myocardium

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, and Endocardial Fibroelastosis

    Myocarditis

    Diseases of the Pericardium

    Acute Pericarditis

    Constrictive Pericarditis

    Tumors of the Heart

    Heart Failure

    Cardiogenic Shock

    Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Heart-Lung and Lung Transplantation

    Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)

    Kawasaki Disease

    Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Infantile Calcifications (GACI, IIAC, and ACDC)

    Systemic Hypertension

    Development of the Hematopoietic System

    The Anemias

    Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia )

    Pearson's Syndrome

    Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia

    Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease

    Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)

    Anemia of Renal Disease

    Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias

    Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

    Megaloblastic Anemias

    Folic Acid Deficiency

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency

    Other Rare Megaloblastic Anemias

    Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Other Microcytic Anemias

    Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias

    Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Hereditary Elliptocytosis

    Hereditary Stomatocytosis

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis

    Hemoglobinopathies

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle Cell Trait (Hemoglobin AS)

    Other Hemoglobinopathies

    Unstable Hemoglobin Disorders

    Abnormal Hemoglobins with Increased Oxygen Affinity

    Abnormal Hemoglobins Causing Cyanosis

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia with Deficiency of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase

    Syndromes of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH)

    Thalassemia Syndromes

    Enzymatic Defects

    Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    Other Glycolytic Enzyme Deficiencies

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related Deficiencies

    Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors- Immune Hemolytic Anemias

    Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors

    Polycythemia

    Non-Clonal Polycythemia

    The Inherited Pancytopenias

    The Acquired Pancytopenias

    Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy

    Platelet Transfusions

    Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions

    Plasma Transfusions

    Risks of Blood Transfusions

    Hemostasis

    The Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Hemostasis

    Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)

    Factor VIII or Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia A or B)

    Factor XI Deficiency (Hemophilia C)

    Deficiencies of the Contact Factors (Nonbleeding Disorders)

    Factor VII Deficiency

    Factor X Deficiency

    Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency

    Factor V Deficiency

    Combined Deficiency of Factors V and VIII

    Fibrinogen Deficiency (Factor I)

    Factor XIII Deficiency (Fibrin-Stabilizing Factor or Transglutaminase Deficiency)

    Antiplasmin or Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Deficiency

    von Willebrand Disease

    Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis

    Thrombotic Disorders in Children

    Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Therapy

    Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency

    Liver Disease

    Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders

    Idiopathic (Autoimmune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    Nonimmune Platelet Destruction

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

    Sequestration

    Congenital Thrombocytopenic Syndromes

    Neonatal Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia Due to Acquired Disorders Causing Decreased Production

    Platelet Function Disorders

    Acquired Disorders of Platelet Function

    Congenital Abnormalities of Platelet Function

    Disorders of the Blood Vessels

    Anatomy and Function of the Spleen

    Splenomegaly

    Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy

    Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System

    Abnormalities of Lymphatic vessels

    Lymphadenopathy

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis)

    Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease)

    Castleman Disease

    Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer

    Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

    Principles of Cancer Diagnosis

    Principles of Cancer Treatment

    The Leukemias

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Down Syndrome and Acute Leukemia and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Infant Leukemia

    Lymphoma

    Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Late Effects in Children and Adolescents with Lymphoma

    Brain Tumors in Childhood

    Neuroblastoma

    Neoplasms of the Kidney

    Wilms Tumor

    Other Pediatric Renal Tumors

    Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Neoplasms of Bone

    Malignant Tumors of Bone

    Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Processes of Bone

    Retinoblastoma

    Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms

    Neoplasms of the Liver

    Benign Vascular Tumors

    Hemangiomas

    Lymphangiomas and Cystic Hygromas

    Rare Tumors

    Thyroid Tumors

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

    Adrenal Tumors

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    Other Histiocytoses

    Introduction to Glomerular Diseases

    Anatomy of the Glomerulus

    Glomerular Filtration

    Glomerular Diseases

    Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria

    Isolated Renal Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (Berger Nephropathy)

    Alport Syndrome

    Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Membranous Nephropathy

    Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

    Multisystem Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Chronic Infections

    Glomerulonephritis Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Goodpasture Disease

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Toxic Nephropathy

    Cortical Necrosis

    Coagulopathies and Thrombocytopenia

    Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Pyelonephritis

    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    Papillary Necrosis

    Acute Tubular Necrosis

    Vascular Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Vascular Abnormalities

    Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Idiopathic Hypercalciuria

    Nephrocalcinosis

    Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria

    Congenital Anomalies

    Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney disease

    Trauma

    Renal Tumors

    Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria

    Infectious Causes of Cystitis and Urethritis

    Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Vigorous Exercise

    Clinical evaluation of the Child with Proteinuria

    Conditions Associated with Proteinuria

    Transient Proteinuria

    Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria

    Fixed Proteinuria

    Nephrotic Syndrome

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome

    Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome

    Tubular Function

    Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Proximal (Type II) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Distal (Type I) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Hyperkalemic (Type IV) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Rickets Associated with Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Bartter Syndrome

    Gitelman Syndrome

    Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Renal Failure

    Acute Kidney Injury

    Chronic Kidney Disease

    End-Stage Renal Disease

    Renal Transplantation

    Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys

    Urinary Tract Infections

    Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Obstruction of the Urinary Tract

    Anomalies of the Bladder

    Neuropathic Bladder

    Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction

    Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra

    Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents

    Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract

    Urinary Lithiasis

    Gynecologic History and Physical Examination

    Vulvovaginitis

    Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child

    Breast Concerns

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism

    Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus

    Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies

    Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs

    Female Genital Mutilation

    Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    Hypopituitarism

    Diabetes Insipidus

    Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action

    Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes

    Physiology of Puberty

    Disorders of Pubertal Development

    Central Precocious Puberty

    Precocious Puberty Resulting from Organic Brain Lesions

    Precocious Puberty Following Irradiation of the Brain

    Syndrome of Precocious Puberty and Hypothyroidism

    Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Tumors

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (Precocious Puberty with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and Abnormal Pigmentation)

    Familial Male Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

    Incomplete (Partial) Precocious Development

    Medicational Precocity

    Thyroid Development and Physiology

    Thyroid Hormone Studies

    Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

    Hypothyroidism

    Thyroiditis

    Goiter

    Congenital Goiter

    Intratracheal Goiter

    Endemic Goiter and Cretinism

    Acquired Goiter

    Thyrotoxicosis

    Graves Disease

    Congenital Hyperthyroidism

    Carcinoma of the Thyroid

    Solitary Thyroid Nodule

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome

    Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism

    Hypoparathyroidism

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy)

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Other Causes of Hypercalcemia

    Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

    Histology and Embryology

    Adrenal Steroid Biosynthesis

    Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenal Steroid Hormone Actions

    Adrenal Medulla

    Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Secondary and Tertiary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Adrenal Insufficiency in the Critical Care Setting

    Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Corticosteroids

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 3β-Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Deficiency of P450 Oxidoreductase (Antley-Bixler Syndrome)

    Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency

    Glucocorticoid-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism

    Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses

    Adrenal Carcinoma

    Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Adrenal Calcification

    Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors

    Cushing Syndrome

    Primary Aldosteronism

    Pheochromocytoma

    Development and Function of the Gonads

    Hypofunction of the Testes

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes

    Gynecomastia

    Hypofunction of the Ovaries

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Due to Lesions of the Ovary

    Disorders of Sex Development

    46,XX DSD

    46,XY DSD

    Ovotesticular DSD

    Diabetes Mellitus

    Classification

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Immune Mediated)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Other Specific Types of Diabetes

    Neurologic Evaluation

    Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System

    Neural Tube Defects

    Spina Bifida Occulta (Occult Spinal Dysraphism)

    Meningocele

    Myelomeningocele

    Encephalocele

    Anencephaly

    Disorders of Neuronal Migration

    Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Agenesis of the Cranial Nerves and Dysgenesis of the Posterior Fossa

    Microcephaly

    Hydrocephalus

    Craniosynostosis

    Deformational Plagiocephaly

    Seizures in Childhood

    Febrile Seizures

    Unprovoked Seizures

    "Partial Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    "

    Generalized Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    Mechanisms of Seizures

    Treatment of Seizures and Epilepsy

    Neonatal Seizures

    Status Epilepticus

    Reflex Seizures (Stimulus Precipitated Seizures)

    Nodding Syndrome

    Conditions that Mimic Seizures

    Headaches

    Migraine

    Secondary Headaches

    Tension-Type Headaches

    Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurofibromatosis

    Tuberous Sclerosis

    Sturge-Weber Symdrome (SWS)

    Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Linear Nevus Syndrome

    PHACE Syndrome

    Incontinentia Pigmenti

    Movement Disorders

    Ataxias

    Chorea, Athetosis, Tremor

    Myoclonus

    Dystonia

    Encephalopathies

    Cerebral Palsy

    Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    Other Encephalopathies

    Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood

    Sphingolipidoses

    Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Sialidosis

    Miscellaneous Disorders

    Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    Neuromyelitis Optica

    Transverse Myelitis

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

    Pediatric Stroke

    Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS)

    Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT)

    Spinal Cord Lesions Associated with Vascular Processes

    Hemorrhagic Stroke (HS)

    Differential Diagnosis of Stroke-Like Events

    CNS Vasculitis

    Central Nervous System Infections

    Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period

    Viral Meningoencephalitis

    Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Brain Abscess

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension / Pseudotumor Cerebri

    Spinal Cord Disorders

    Tethered Cord

    Diastematomyelia

    Syringomyelia

    Spinal Cord Tumors

    Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Evaluation and Investigation

    Developmental Disorders of Muscle

    Myotubular Myopathy (Centrionuclear Myopathy)

    Congenital Muscle Fiber-Type Disproportion

    Nemaline Rod Myopathy

    Core Myopathies

    Myofibrillar Myopathies

    Brain Malformations and Muscle Development

    Amyoplasia

    Muscular Dysgenesis (Proteus Syndrome Myopathy)

    Benign Congenital Hypotonia

    Arthrogryposis

    Muscular Dystrophies

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy/Laminopathies

    Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies

    Metabolic Myopathies

    Periodic Paralyses (Potassium-Related) and other Muscle Channelopathies

    Malignant Hyperthermia

    Glycogenoses

    Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Lipid Myopathies

    Vitamin E Deficiency Myopathy

    Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Spinal Muscular Atrophies

    Other Motor Neuron Diseases

    Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, HMSN Type IIa)

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Axonal Type)

    Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy and Déjerine-Sottas Disease (HMSN Type III)

    Roussy-Lévy Syndrome

    Refsum Disease (Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy,Type IV) and Infantile Refsum Disease

    Fabry Disease

    Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    Tomaculous (Hypermyelinating) Neuropathy; Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Leukodystrophies

    Toxic Neuropathies

    Autonomic Neuropathies

    Familial Dysautonomia

    Other Autonomic Neuropathies

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Bell Palsy

    Growth and Development of the Eye

    Examination of the Eye

    Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation

    Disorders of Vision

    Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris

    Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment

    Abnormalities of the Lids

    Disorders of the Lacrimal System

    Disorders of the Conjunctiva

    Abnormalities of the Cornea

    Abnormalities of the Lens

    Disorders of the Uveal Tract

    Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous

    Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve

    Childhood Glaucoma

    Orbital Abnormalities

    Orbital Infections

    Injuries to the Eye

    General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear

    Hearing Loss

    Congenital Malformations of the Ear

    External Otitis (Otitis Externa)

    Otitis Media

    Acute Mastoiditis

    The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth

    Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Morphology of the Skin

    Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient

    Cutaenous Manifestations of Systemic Disease

    Multisystemic Medication Reactions

    Principles of Dermatologic Therapy

    Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate

    Cutaneous Defects

    Ectodermal Dysplasias

    Vascular Disorders

    Cutaneous Nevi

    Hyperpigmented Lesions

    Hypopigmented Lesions

    Vesiculobullous Disorders

    Erythema Multiforme

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Mechanobullous Disorders

    Pemphigus

    Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Linear Immunoglobulin A Dermatosis (Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood)

    Eczematous Disorders

    Contact Dermatitis

    Nummular Eczema

    Pityriasis Alba

    Lichen Simplex Chronicus

    Acute Palmoplantar Eczema (Dyshidrotic Eczema, Dyshidrosis, Pompholyx)

    Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Photosensitivity

    Diseases of the Epidermis

    Psoriasis

    Pityriasis Lichenoides

    Keratosis Pilaris

    Lichen Spinulosus

    Pityriasis Rosea

    Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    Darier Disease (Keratosis Follicularis)

    Lichen Nitidus

    Lichen Striatus

    Lichen Planus

    Porokeratosis

    Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome (Papular Acrodermatitis)

    Acanthosis Nigricans

    Disorders of Keratinization

    Diseases of the Dermis

    Mast Cell Activation Syndrome

    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Diseases of Subcutaneous Tissue

    Panniculitis and Erythema Nodosum

    Lipodystrophy

    Disorders of the Sweat Glands

    Disorders of Hair

    Disorders of the Nails

    Disorders of the Mucous Membranes

    Cutaneous Bacterial Infections

    Impetigo

    Subcutaneous Tissue Infections

    Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter Disease)

    Ecthyma

    Other Cutaneous Bacterial Infections

    Cutaneous Fungal Infections

    Cutaneous Viral Infections

    Arthropod Bites and Infestations

    Arthropod Bites

    Scabies

    Pediculosis

    Seabather's Eruption

    Acne

    Tumors of the Skin

    Nutritional Dermatoses

    Growth and Development

    Evaluation of the Child

    The Foot and Toes

    Metatarsus Adductus

    Calcaneovalgus Feet

    Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot)

    Congenital Vertical Talus

    Hypermobile Pes Planus (Flexible Flatfeet)

    Tarsal Coalition

    Cavus Feet

    Osteochondroses/Apophysitis

    Puncture Wounds of the Foot

    Toe Deformities

    Painful Foot

    Shoes

    Torsional and Angular Deformities

    Normal Limb Development

    Evaluation

    Torsional Deformities

    Coronal Plane Deformities

    Congenital Angular Deformities of the Tibia and Fibula

    Leg-Length Discrepancy

    The Knee

    Discoid Lateral Meniscus

    Popliteal Cysts (Baker Cysts)

    Osteochondritis Dissecans

    Osgood-Schlatter Disease and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome

    Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Patellofemoral Instability

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    The Hip

    Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    Transient Monoarticular Synovitis (Toxic Synovitis)

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

    Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    The Spine

    Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Congenital Scoliosis

    Neuromuscular Scoliosis, Genetic Syndromes, and Compensatory Scoliosis

    Kyphosis (Round-Back)

    Back Pain in Children

    Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

    Spine Infection

    Intervertebral Disk Herniation/Slipped Vertebral Apophysis

    Tumors

    The Neck

    Torticollis

    Klippel-Feil Syndrome

    Cervical Anomalies and Instabilities

    The Upper Limb

    Arthrogryposis

    Common Fractures

    Unique Characteristics of Pediatric Fractures

    Pediatric Fracture Patterns

    Upper Extremity Fractures

    Fractures of the Lower Extremity

    Operative Treatment

    Complications of Fractures in Children

    Osteomyelitis

    Septic Arthritis

    Epidemiology and Prevention of Injuries

    Management of Musculoskeletal Injury

    Growth Plate Injuries

    Shoulder Injuries

    Elbow Injuries

    Low Back Injuries

    Hip and Pelvis Injuries

    Knee Injuries

    Lower Leg Pain: Shin Splints, Stress Fractures, and Chronic Compartent Syndrome

    Ankle Injuries

    Foot Injuries

    Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion)

    Cervical Spine Injuries

    Heat Injuries

    Female Athletes: Menstrual Problems and the Risk of Osteopenia

    Performance-Enhancing Aids

    Specific Sports and Associated Injuries

    General Considerations

    Disorders Involving Cartilage Matrix Proteins

    Disorders Involving Transmembrane Receptors

    Disorders Involving Ion Transporters

    Disorders Involving Transcription Factors

    Disorders Involving Defective Bone Resorption

    Disorders for Which Defects Are Poorly Understood or Unknown

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Marfan Syndrome

    Bone Structure, Growth, and Hormonal Regulation

    Hypophosphatasia

    Hyperphosphatasia

    Osteoporosis

    Evaluation of the Child for Rehabilitative Services

    Rehabilitation for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic Crisis Management

    Spasticity

    Birth Brachial Plexus Palsy

    Meningomyelocele (Spina Bifida)

    Ambulation Assistance

    Health and Wellness for Children with Disabilities

    Home Mechanical Ventilation and Technology Dependence

    Overview of Environmental Health and Children

    Biologic Effects of Radiation on Children

    Chemical Pollutants

    Tobacco

    Heavy Metal Intoxication

    Lead Poisoning

    Nonbacterial Food Poisoning

    Mushroom Poisoning

    Solanine Poisoning

    Seafood Poisoning

    Melamine Poisoning

    Biologic and Chemical Terrorism

    Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Animal and Human Bites

    Rat Bite Fever

    Monkeypox

    Envenomations

    Laboratory Testing in Infants and Children

    Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests

    ChapTitle

    Overview of Pediatrics

    Child Health Disparities

    Racism

    Global Health

    Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children

    Safety in Healthcare for Children

    Ethics in Pediatric Care

    Pediatric Palliative Care

    Domestic and International Adoption

    Foster and Kinship Care

    Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child

    Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care

    Maximizing Children’s Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling

    Injury Control

    Impact of Violence on Children

    Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence

    Media Violence

    Effects of War on Children

    Child Trafficking

    Abused and Neglected Children

    Sexual Abuse

    Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy)

    Strategies for Health Behavior Change

    Developmental and Behavioral Theories

    Positive Parenting and Support

    Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development

    The Newborn

    The First Year

    Infant Crying and Colic

    The Second Year

    The Preschool Years

    Middle Childhood

    Adolescence

    Assessment of Growth

    Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance

    Childcare

    Loss, Separation, and Bereavement

    Sleep Medicine

    Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing

    Psychopharmacology

    Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Rumination and Pica

    Rumination Disorder

    Pica

    Motor Disorders and Habits

    Tic Disorders

    Stereotypic Movement Disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Major and Other Depressive Disorders

    Bipolar and Related Disorders

    Suicide and Attempted Suicide

    Eating Disorders

    Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders

    Tantrums and Breath-holding spells

    Lying, Stealing and Truancy

    Aggression

    Self-injurious behavior

    Childhood Psychoses

    Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

    Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy

    Catatonia in Children and Adolescents

    Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood

    Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Dyslexia

    Math and Writing Disabilities

    Math Disabilities

    Writing Disabilities

    Language Development and Communication Disorders

    Child-Onset Fluency Disorder

    Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability

    Intellectual Disability with Regression

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Nutritional Requirements

    Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Nutrition, Food Security, and Health

    Refeeding Syndrome

    Failure to Thrive

    Overweight and Obesity

    Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess

    Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    Niacin (Vitamin B3)

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Biotin

    Folate

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess

    Vitamin E Deficiency

    Vitamin K Deficiency

    Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies

    Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Composition of Body Fluids

    Regulation of Osmolality and Volume

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Magnesium

    Phosphorus

    Acid-Base Balance

    Maintenance and Replacement Therapy

    Deficit Therapy

    Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders

    Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics

    Principles of Drug Therapy

    Anesthesia and Perioperative Care

    Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Sedation and Procedural Pain

    Pediatric Pain Management

    Poisoning

    Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine

    Emergency Medical Services for Children

    Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient

    Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment

    Principles Applicable to the Developing World

    Triage of the Acutely Ill Child

    Resuscitation

    Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma

    Spinal Cord Injuries in Children

    Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations

    Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization

    Brain Death

    Syncope

    POTS

    Shock

    Respiratory Distress and Failure

    Mechanical Ventilation

    Long-term Mechanical Ventilation

    Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)

    Drowning and Submersion Injury

    Burn injuries

    Cold Injuries

    Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice

    Genetic Counseling

    Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders

    The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine

    The Human Genome

    Patterns of Genetic Transmission

    Cytogenetics

    Methods of Chromosome Analysis

    Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number

    Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure

    Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy

    Fragile Chromosome Sites

    Mosaicism

    Chromosome Instability Syndromes

    Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting

    Genetics of Common Disorders

    Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders

    Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease

    Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases

    An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids

    Phenylalanine

    Tyrosine

    Methionine

    Cysteine/Cystine

    Tryptophan

    Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias

    Glycine

    Serine

    Proline

    Glutamic Acid

    Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters

    Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine)

    Histidine

    Lysine

    N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease)

    Defects in Metabolism of Lipids

    Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation

    Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids

    Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport

    Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders)

    Mucolipidoses

    Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates

    Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Defects in Galactose Metabolism

    Defects in Fructose Metabolism

    Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis

    Defects in Pentose Metabolism

    Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation

    Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation

    Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders

    Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome

    The Porphyrias

    Hypoglycemia

    Overview of Mortality and Morbidity

    The Newborn Infant

    History in Neonatal Pediatrics

    Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant

    Routine Newborn Care

    Circumcision

    Parent-Infant Bonding

    High-Risk Pregnancies

    The Fetus

    Fetal Growth and Maturity

    Fetal Distress

    Maternal Disease and the Fetus

    Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus

    Teratogens

    Radiation

    Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease

    Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease

    Fetal Intervention and Surgery

    The High-Risk Infant

    Multiple Gestation Pregnancies

    Extreme and Very Preterm Infants

    Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants

    Term and Post-Term Infants

    Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge

    Infant Transport

    Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period

    Hyperthermia

    Neontal Cold Injury

    Edema

    Hypocalcemia (Tetany)

    Hypermanganazemia

    Nervous System Disorders

    The Cranium

    Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Spine and Spinal Cord

    Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies

    Respiratory Tract Disorders

    Transition to Pulmonary Respiration

    Apnea

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

    BPD

    PDA

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia)

    Meconium Aspiration

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation)

    Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Foramen of Morgagni Hernia

    Paraesophageal Hernia

    Eventration

    Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium)

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage

    Digestive System Disorders

    Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction

    Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

    Kernicterus

    Blood Disorders

    Anemia in the Newborn Infant

    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)

    Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia)

    Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant

    The Umbilicus

    Abstinence Syndromes

    Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal)

    Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes

    Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    The Endocrine System

    Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Dysmorphology

    Epidemiology of Infections

    Healthcare−Associated Infections (HAI)

    Congenital Infections

    Adolescent Physical and Social Development

    Gender and Sexual Identity

    Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents

    Transgender Care

    The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems

    Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents

    Legal Issues

    Screening Procedures

    Transitioning to Adult Care

    Violent Behavior

    Substance Abuse

    Alcohol

    Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    Marijuana

    Inhalants

    Hallucinogens

    Cocaine

    Amphetamines

    Stimulant Abuse and Diversion

    Opiates

    Bath salts and other drugs of abuse

    The Breast

    Menstrual Problems

    Amenorrhea

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Dysmenorrhea

    Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Contraception

    Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)

    Other Progestin-only Methods

    Combined Hormonal Contraceptives

    Emergency Contraception (EC)

    Dual Protection

    Other Barrier Methods

    Other Methods

    Adolescent Pregnancy

    Adolescent Sexual Assault

    Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency

    Lymphocyte Development and Function

    Primary Defects of Antibody Production

    Treatment of B-Cell Defects

    Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity

    Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Combined Immunodeficiency

    Defects of Innate Immunity

    Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency

    Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation

    Neutrophils

    Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells

    Eosinophils

    Disorders of Phagocyte Function

    Leukopenia

    Leukocytosis

    The Complement System

    Disorders of the Complement System

    Evaluation of the Complement System

    Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components

    Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins

    Secondary Disorders of Complement

    Treatment of Complement Disorders

    Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors

    Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease

    Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease

    Diagnosis of Allergic Disease

    Allergic Rhinitis

    Childhood Asthma

    Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)

    Insect Allergy

    Ocular Allergies

    Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema

    Anaphylaxis

    Serum Sickness

    Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods

    Adverse Reactions to Drugs

    Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease

    Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides

    Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Neonatal Lupus

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon

    Behçet Disease

    Sjögren Syndrome

    The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Amyloidosis

    Sarcoidosis

    Kawasaki Disease

    Vasculitis Syndromes

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    Takayasu Arteritis

    Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa

    ANCA-associated vasculitis

    Other Vasculitic Syndromes

    Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes

    Growing Pains

    Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Fibromyalgia

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Erythromelalgia

    Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis

    Diagnostic Microbiology

    The Microbiome and Pediatric Health

    Immunization Practices

    International Immunization Practices

    Infection Prevention and Control

    Childcare and Communicable Diseases

    Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally

    Fever

    Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos)

    Fever in the Older Child

    Fever of Unknown Origin

    Infections in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies

    Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infection Associated with Medical Devices

    Principles of Antibacterial Therapy

    Staphylococcus

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

    Group A Streptococcus

    Rheumatic Fever

    Group B Streptococcus

    Non-Group A or B Streptococci

    Enterococcus

    Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

    Listeria monocytogenes

    Actinomyces

    Nocardia

    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

    Kingella kingae

    Haemophilus influenzae

    Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

    Moraxella catarrhalis

    Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)

    Salmonella

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis

    Enteric Fever (Typhoid Fever)

    Shigella

    Escherichia coli

    Cholera

    Campylobacter

    Yersinia

    Yersinia enterocolitica

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas

    Aeromonas

    Plesiomonas shigelloides

    Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas

    Pseudomonas

    Burkholderia Cepacia Complex

    Stenotrophomonas

    Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

    Brucella

    Legionella

    Bartonella

    Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae)

    Bartonellosis (Bartonella bacilliformis)

    Trench Fever (Bartonella quintana)

    Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis Hepatis (Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana)

    Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

    Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)

    Clostridium difficile Infection

    Other Anaerobic Infections

    Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy

    Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

    Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections

    Yaws (Treponema pertenue)

    Bejel (Endemic Syphilis: Treponema pallidum endemicum)

    Pinta (Treponema carateum)

    Leptospira

    Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)

    Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum)

    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae

    Chlamydia trachomatis

    Trachoma

    Genital Tract Infections

    Conjunctivitis and Pneumonia in Newborns

    Lymphogranuloma Venereum

    Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

    Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)

    Mediterranean Spotted Fever or Boutonneuse Fever (Rickettsia conorii)

    Rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari)

    Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    Typhus Group Rickettsioses

    Murine (endemic or flea-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia typhi)

    Epidemic (louse-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii)

    Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmosis

    Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

    Principles of Antifungal Therapy

    Candida

    Neonatal Infections

    Infections in Immunocompetent Children and Adolescents

    Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Adolescents

    Cryptococcus neoformans

    Malassezia

    Aspergillus

    Allergic Disease (Hypersensitivity Syndromes)

    Saprophytic (Noninvasive) Syndromes

    Invasive Disease

    Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)

    Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)

    Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis)

    Pneumocystis Jirovecii

    Principles of Antiviral Therapy

    Measles

    Rubella

    Mumps

    Polioviruses

    Nonpolio Enteroviruses

    Parvoviruses

    Herpes Simplex Virus

    Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

    Epstein-Barr Virus

    Cytomegalovirus

    Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)

    Human Herpesvirus 8

    Influenza Viruses

    Parainfluenza Viruses

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Human Metapneumovirus

    Adenoviruses

    Rhinoviruses

    Coronaviruses

    Rotaviruses, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus

    Human Papillomaviruses

    Arboviral Infections

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Western Equine Encephalitis

    St. Louis Encephalitis

    West Nile Encephalitis

    Powassan Encephalitis

    LaCrosse and California Encephalitis

    Colorado Tick Fever

    Chikungunya Fever

    Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

    Japanese Encephalitis

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis

    Zika Virus

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Yellow Fever

    Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Rabies

    Polyomaviruses

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy

    Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    Amebiasis

    Giardiasis and Balantidiasis

    Giardia lamblia

    Balantidiasis

    Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia

    Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

    Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)

    African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei complex)

    American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)

    Malaria (Plasmodium)

    Babesiosis (Babesia)

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)

    Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)

    Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichuria)

    Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)

    Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)

    Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)

    Other Tissue Nematodes

    Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)

    Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)

    Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)

    Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)

    Adult Tapeworm Infections

    Cysticercosis

    Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)

    Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena

    Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders

    Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth

    Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions

    Malocclusion

    Cleft Lip and Palate

    Syndromes with Oral Manifestations

    Dental Caries

    Periodontal Diseases

    Dental Trauma

    Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues

    Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws

    Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus

    Common Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Aids

    Congenital Anomalies

    Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts

    Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus

    Dysmotility

    Hiatal Hernia

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non-GERD Esophagitis

    Esophageal Perforation

    Esophageal Varices

    Ingestions

    Foreign Bodies in the Esophagus

    Caustic Ingestions

    Normal Development, Structure, and Function

    Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach

    Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

    Congenital Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Gastric Duplication

    Gastric Volvulus

    Hypertrophic Gastropathy

    Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation

    Duodenal Obstruction

    Jejunal and Ileal Atresia and Obstruction

    Malrotation

    Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Intestinal Duplication

    Meckel Diverticulum and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease

    Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy

    Encopresis and Functional Constipation

    Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung Disease)

    Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Wilkie Syndrome, Cast Syndrome, Arteriomesenteric Duodenal Compression Syndrome)

    Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Ileus

    Adhesions

    Intussusception

    Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Foreign Bodies and Bezoars

    Foreign Bodies in the Stomach and Intestine

    Bezoars

    Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children

    Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Crohn Disease (Regional Enteritis, Regional lleitis, Granulomatous Colitis)

    Very Early Onset IBD

    Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Disorders of Malabsorption

    Evaluation of Children with Suspected Intestinal Malabsorption

    Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)

    Other Malabsorptive Syndromes

    Intestinal Infections and Infestations Associated with Malabsorption

    Immunodeficiency Disorders

    Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease

    Short Bowel Syndrome

    Chronic Malnutrition

    Enzyme Deficiencies

    Liver and Biliary Disorders Causing Malabsorption

    Rare Inborn Defects Causing Malabsorption

    Malabsorption in Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Malabsorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure

    Acute Gastroenteritis in Children

    Traveler's Diarrhea

    Chronic Diarrhea

    Diarrhea from Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Functional Abdominal pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal pain)

    Cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine

    Acute Appendicitis

    Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum

    Anorectal Malformations

    Anal Fissure

    Perianal Abscess and Fistula

    Hemorrhoids

    Rectal Mucosal Prolapse

    Pilonidal Sinus and Abscess

    Tumors of the Digestive Tract

    Inguinal Hernias

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology

    Anatomic Abnormalities

    Physiology

    Pancreatic Function Tests

    Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas

    Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Pancreatitis

    Acute Pancreatitis

    Chronic Pancreatitis

    Pseudocyst of the Pancreas

    Pancreatic Tumors

    Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System

    Manifestations of Liver Disease

    Evaluation of Patients with Possible Liver Dysfunction

    Cholestasis

    Neonatal Cholestasis

    Cholestasis in the Older Child

    Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Inherited Deficient Conjugation of Bilirubin (Familial Nonhemolytic Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia)

    Wilson Disease

    Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    Neonatal Iron Storage Disease

    Miscellaneous Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Viral Hepatitis

    Liver Abscess

    Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Mitochondrial Hepatopathies

    Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury

    Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver

    Diseases of the Gallbladder

    Portal Hypertension and Varices

    Liver Transplantation

    Malformations

    Ascites

    Chylous Ascites

    Peritonitis

    Acute Primary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Localized Peritonitis (Peritoneal Abscess)

    Epigastric Hernia

    Incisional Hernia

    Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease

    Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse (SUPC)

    BRUE / ALTE

    Congenital Disorders of the Nose

    Acquired Disorders of the Nose

    Foreign Body

    Epistaxis

    Nasal Polyps

    The Common Cold

    Sinusitis

    Acute Pharyngitis

    Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess

    Tonsils and Adenoids

    Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)

    Infectious Upper Airway Obstruction

    Bacterial Tracheitis

    Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Laryngomalacia

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Congenital Laryngeal Webs and Atresia

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Laryngoceles and Saccular Cysts

    Posterior Laryngeal Cleft and Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft

    Vascular and Cardiac Anomalies

    Tracheal Stenoses, Webs, and Atresia

    Foregut Cysts

    Tracheomalacia and Bronchomalacia

    Foreign Bodies of the Airway

    Laryngeal Foreign Bodies

    Tracheal Foreign Bodies

    Bronchial Foreign Bodies

    Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Acquired Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia

    Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Vocal Nodules

    Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Vascular Anomalies

    Other Laryngeal Neoplasms

    Tracheal Neoplasms

    Bronchial Tumors

    Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis

    Wheezing in Infants: Bronchiolitis

    Bronchitis

    Plastic Bronchitis

    Emphysema and Overinflation

    α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema

    Other Distal Airway Diseases

    Bronciolitis Obliterans

    Follicular Bronchitis

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    Congenital Disorders of the Lung

    Pulmonary Agenesis and Aplasia

    Pulmonary Hypoplasia

    Congenital Cystic Malformation

    Pulmonary Sequestration

    Bronchogenic Cysts

    Congenital Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia

    Lung Hernia

    Other Congenital Malformations of the Lung

    Pulmonary Edema

    Aspiration Syndromes

    Chronic Recurrent Aspiration

    Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonia

    Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease

    Granulomatous Lung Disease

    Eosinophilic Lung Disease

    Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Pleural Effusion and Empyema

    Dry or Plastic Pleural Effusion

    Serofibrinous or Serosanguineous Pleural Effusion

    Empyema

    Bronchiectasis

    Pulmonary Abscess

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)

    Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood

    Inherited Disorders of Surfactant Metabolism

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage

    Pulmonary Embolus and Infarction

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemoptysis

    Atelectasis

    Pulmonary Tumors

    Pneumothorax

    Pneumomediastinum

    Hydrothorax

    Hemothorax

    Chylothorax

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function

    Pectus Excavatum (Funnel Chest)

    Pectus Carinatum and Sternal Clefts

    Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (Thoracic-Pelvic-Phalangeal Dystrophy)

    Achondroplasia

    Kyphoscoliosis: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congential Scoliosis

    Congenital Rib Anomalies

    Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency

    Neuromuscular Diseases

    Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Other Conditions

    Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    Cardiac Development

    Early Cardiac Morphogenesis

    Cardiac Looping

    Cardiac Septation

    Aortic Arch Development

    Cardiac Differentiation

    Developmental Changes in Cardiac Function

    The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition

    The Fetal Circulation

    The Transitional Circulation

    The Neonatal Circulation

    History and Physical Examination

    Laboratory Evaluation

    Radiologic Assessment

    Electrocardiography

    Hematologic Data

    Echocardiography

    Exercise Testing

    MRI, MRA, CT, and Radionuclide Studies

    Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization

    Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease

    Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

    Atrial Septal Defect

    Ostium Secundum Defect

    Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Atrioventricular Septal Defects (Ostium Primum and Atrioventricular Canal or Endocardial Cushion Defects)

    Ventricular Septal Defect

    Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Aortopulmonary Window Defect

    Coronary Artery Fistula

    Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Obstructive Lesions

    Pulmonary Valve Stenosis with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Infundibular Pulmonary Stenosis and Double-Chamber Right Ventricle

    Pulmonary Stenosis in Combination with an Intracardiac Shunt

    Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis

    Aortic Stenosis

    Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation with Ventricular Septal Defect

    Coarctation with Other Cardiac Anomalies and Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Congenital Mitral Stenosis

    Pulmonary Venous Hypertension

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Regurgitant Lesions

    Pulmonary Valvular Insufficiency and Congenital Absence of the Pulmonary Valve

    Congenital Mitral Insufficiency

    Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Tricuspid Regurgitation

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation of the Critically Ill Neonate with Cyanosis and Respiratory Distress

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions: Lesions Associated with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Tetraology of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia

    Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Tricuspid Atresia

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    Ebstein Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Lesions Associated with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect

    L-Transposition of the Great Arteries (Corrected Transposition)

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Without Pulmonary Stenosis

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Malposition of the Great Arteries (Taussig-Bing Anomaly)

    Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Truncus Arteriosus

    Single Ventricle (Double-Inlet Ventricle, Univentricular Heart)

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Abnormal Positions of the Heart and the Heterotaxy Syndromes (Asplenia, Polysplenia)

    Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations

    Anomalies of the Aortic Arch

    Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries

    Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula

    Ectopia Cordis

    Diverticulum of the Left Ventricle

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Pulmonary Vascular Disease (Eisenmenger Syndrome)

    General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart

    Principles of Antiarrhythmic Therapy

    Sinus Arrhythmias and Extrasystoles

    Supraventricular Tachycardia

    Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

    Long Q-T Syndromes

    Sinus Node Dysfunction

    AV Blcok

    Sudden Death

    Infective Endocarditis

    Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Diseases of the Myocardium

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, and Endocardial Fibroelastosis

    Myocarditis

    Diseases of the Pericardium

    Acute Pericarditis

    Constrictive Pericarditis

    Tumors of the Heart

    Heart Failure

    Cardiogenic Shock

    Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Heart-Lung and Lung Transplantation

    Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)

    Kawasaki Disease

    Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Infantile Calcifications (GACI, IIAC, and ACDC)

    Systemic Hypertension

    Development of the Hematopoietic System

    The Anemias

    Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia )

    Pearson's Syndrome

    Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia

    Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease

    Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)

    Anemia of Renal Disease

    Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias

    Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

    Megaloblastic Anemias

    Folic Acid Deficiency

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency

    Other Rare Megaloblastic Anemias

    Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Other Microcytic Anemias

    Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias

    Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Hereditary Elliptocytosis

    Hereditary Stomatocytosis

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis

    Hemoglobinopathies

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle Cell Trait (Hemoglobin AS)

    Other Hemoglobinopathies

    Unstable Hemoglobin Disorders

    Abnormal Hemoglobins with Increased Oxygen Affinity

    Abnormal Hemoglobins Causing Cyanosis

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia with Deficiency of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase

    Syndromes of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH)

    Thalassemia Syndromes

    Enzymatic Defects

    Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    Other Glycolytic Enzyme Deficiencies

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related Deficiencies

    Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors- Immune Hemolytic Anemias

    Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors

    Polycythemia

    Non-Clonal Polycythemia

    The Inherited Pancytopenias

    The Acquired Pancytopenias

    Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy

    Platelet Transfusions

    Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions

    Plasma Transfusions

    Risks of Blood Transfusions

    Hemostasis

    The Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Hemostasis

    Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)

    Factor VIII or Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia A or B)

    Factor XI Deficiency (Hemophilia C)

    Deficiencies of the Contact Factors (Nonbleeding Disorders)

    Factor VII Deficiency

    Factor X Deficiency

    Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency

    Factor V Deficiency

    Combined Deficiency of Factors V and VIII

    Fibrinogen Deficiency (Factor I)

    Factor XIII Deficiency (Fibrin-Stabilizing Factor or Transglutaminase Deficiency)

    Antiplasmin or Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Deficiency

    von Willebrand Disease

    Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis

    Thrombotic Disorders in Children

    Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Therapy

    Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency

    Liver Disease

    Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders

    Idiopathic (Autoimmune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    Nonimmune Platelet Destruction

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

    Sequestration

    Congenital Thrombocytopenic Syndromes

    Neonatal Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia Due to Acquired Disorders Causing Decreased Production

    Platelet Function Disorders

    Acquired Disorders of Platelet Function

    Congenital Abnormalities of Platelet Function

    Disorders of the Blood Vessels

    Anatomy and Function of the Spleen

    Splenomegaly

    Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy

    Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System

    Abnormalities of Lymphatic vessels

    Lymphadenopathy

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis)

    Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease)

    Castleman Disease

    Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer

    Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

    Principles of Cancer Diagnosis

    Principles of Cancer Treatment

    The Leukemias

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Down Syndrome and Acute Leukemia and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Infant Leukemia

    Lymphoma

    Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Late Effects in Children and Adolescents with Lymphoma

    Brain Tumors in Childhood

    Neuroblastoma

    Neoplasms of the Kidney

    Wilms Tumor

    Other Pediatric Renal Tumors

    Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Neoplasms of Bone

    Malignant Tumors of Bone

    Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Processes of Bone

    Retinoblastoma

    Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms

    Neoplasms of the Liver

    Benign Vascular Tumors

    Hemangiomas

    Lymphangiomas and Cystic Hygromas

    Rare Tumors

    Thyroid Tumors

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

    Adrenal Tumors

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    Other Histiocytoses

    Introduction to Glomerular Diseases

    Anatomy of the Glomerulus

    Glomerular Filtration

    Glomerular Diseases

    Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria

    Isolated Renal Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (Berger Nephropathy)

    Alport Syndrome

    Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Membranous Nephropathy

    Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

    Multisystem Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Chronic Infections

    Glomerulonephritis Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Goodpasture Disease

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Toxic Nephropathy

    Cortical Necrosis

    Coagulopathies and Thrombocytopenia

    Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Pyelonephritis

    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    Papillary Necrosis

    Acute Tubular Necrosis

    Vascular Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Vascular Abnormalities

    Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Idiopathic Hypercalciuria

    Nephrocalcinosis

    Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria

    Congenital Anomalies

    Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney disease

    Trauma

    Renal Tumors

    Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria

    Infectious Causes of Cystitis and Urethritis

    Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Vigorous Exercise

    Clinical evaluation of the Child with Proteinuria

    Conditions Associated with Proteinuria

    Transient Proteinuria

    Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria

    Fixed Proteinuria

    Nephrotic Syndrome

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome

    Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome

    Tubular Function

    Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Proximal (Type II) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Distal (Type I) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Hyperkalemic (Type IV) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Rickets Associated with Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Bartter Syndrome

    Gitelman Syndrome

    Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Renal Failure

    Acute Kidney Injury

    Chronic Kidney Disease

    End-Stage Renal Disease

    Renal Transplantation

    Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys

    Urinary Tract Infections

    Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Obstruction of the Urinary Tract

    Anomalies of the Bladder

    Neuropathic Bladder

    Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction

    Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra

    Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents

    Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract

    Urinary Lithiasis

    Gynecologic History and Physical Examination

    Vulvovaginitis

    Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child

    Breast Concerns

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism

    Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus

    Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies

    Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs

    Female Genital Mutilation

    Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    Hypopituitarism

    Diabetes Insipidus

    Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action

    Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes

    Physiology of Puberty

    Disorders of Pubertal Development

    Central Precocious Puberty

    Precocious Puberty Resulting from Organic Brain Lesions

    Precocious Puberty Following Irradiation of the Brain

    Syndrome of Precocious Puberty and Hypothyroidism

    Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Tumors

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (Precocious Puberty with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and Abnormal Pigmentation)

    Familial Male Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

    Incomplete (Partial) Precocious Development

    Medicational Precocity

    Thyroid Development and Physiology

    Thyroid Hormone Studies

    Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

    Hypothyroidism

    Thyroiditis

    Goiter

    Congenital Goiter

    Intratracheal Goiter

    Endemic Goiter and Cretinism

    Acquired Goiter

    Thyrotoxicosis

    Graves Disease

    Congenital Hyperthyroidism

    Carcinoma of the Thyroid

    Solitary Thyroid Nodule

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome

    Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism

    Hypoparathyroidism

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy)

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Other Causes of Hypercalcemia

    Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

    Histology and Embryology

    Adrenal Steroid Biosynthesis

    Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenal Steroid Hormone Actions

    Adrenal Medulla

    Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Secondary and Tertiary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Adrenal Insufficiency in the Critical Care Setting

    Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Corticosteroids

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 3β-Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Deficiency of P450 Oxidoreductase (Antley-Bixler Syndrome)

    Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency

    Glucocorticoid-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism

    Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses

    Adrenal Carcinoma

    Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Adrenal Calcification

    Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors

    Cushing Syndrome

    Primary Aldosteronism

    Pheochromocytoma

    Development and Function of the Gonads

    Hypofunction of the Testes

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes

    Gynecomastia

    Hypofunction of the Ovaries

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Due to Lesions of the Ovary

    Disorders of Sex Development

    46,XX DSD

    46,XY DSD

    Ovotesticular DSD

    Diabetes Mellitus

    Classification

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Immune Mediated)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Other Specific Types of Diabetes

    Neurologic Evaluation

    Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System

    Neural Tube Defects

    Spina Bifida Occulta (Occult Spinal Dysraphism)

    Meningocele

    Myelomeningocele

    Encephalocele

    Anencephaly

    Disorders of Neuronal Migration

    Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Agenesis of the Cranial Nerves and Dysgenesis of the Posterior Fossa

    Microcephaly

    Hydrocephalus

    Craniosynostosis

    Deformational Plagiocephaly

    Seizures in Childhood

    Febrile Seizures

    Unprovoked Seizures

    "Partial Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    "

    Generalized Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    Mechanisms of Seizures

    Treatment of Seizures and Epilepsy

    Neonatal Seizures

    Status Epilepticus

    Reflex Seizures (Stimulus Precipitated Seizures)

    Nodding Syndrome

    Conditions that Mimic Seizures

    Headaches

    Migraine

    Secondary Headaches

    Tension-Type Headaches

    Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurofibromatosis

    Tuberous Sclerosis

    Sturge-Weber Symdrome (SWS)

    Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Linear Nevus Syndrome

    PHACE Syndrome

    Incontinentia Pigmenti

    Movement Disorders

    Ataxias

    Chorea, Athetosis, Tremor

    Myoclonus

    Dystonia

    Encephalopathies

    Cerebral Palsy

    Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    Other Encephalopathies

    Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood

    Sphingolipidoses

    Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Sialidosis

    Miscellaneous Disorders

    Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    Neuromyelitis Optica

    Transverse Myelitis

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

    Pediatric Stroke

    Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS)

    Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT)

    Spinal Cord Lesions Associated with Vascular Processes

    Hemorrhagic Stroke (HS)

    Differential Diagnosis of Stroke-Like Events

    CNS Vasculitis

    Central Nervous System Infections

    Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period

    Viral Meningoencephalitis

    Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Brain Abscess

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension / Pseudotumor Cerebri

    Spinal Cord Disorders

    Tethered Cord

    Diastematomyelia

    Syringomyelia

    Spinal Cord Tumors

    Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Evaluation and Investigation

    Developmental Disorders of Muscle

    Myotubular Myopathy (Centrionuclear Myopathy)

    Congenital Muscle Fiber-Type Disproportion

    Nemaline Rod Myopathy

    Core Myopathies

    Myofibrillar Myopathies

    Brain Malformations and Muscle Development

    Amyoplasia

    Muscular Dysgenesis (Proteus Syndrome Myopathy)

    Benign Congenital Hypotonia

    Arthrogryposis

    Muscular Dystrophies

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy/Laminopathies

    Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies

    Metabolic Myopathies

    Periodic Paralyses (Potassium-Related) and other Muscle Channelopathies

    Malignant Hyperthermia

    Glycogenoses

    Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Lipid Myopathies

    Vitamin E Deficiency Myopathy

    Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Spinal Muscular Atrophies

    Other Motor Neuron Diseases

    Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, HMSN Type IIa)

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Axonal Type)

    Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy and Déjerine-Sottas Disease (HMSN Type III)

    Roussy-Lévy Syndrome

    Refsum Disease (Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy,Type IV) and Infantile Refsum Disease

    Fabry Disease

    Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    Tomaculous (Hypermyelinating) Neuropathy; Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Leukodystrophies

    Toxic Neuropathies

    Autonomic Neuropathies

    Familial Dysautonomia

    Other Autonomic Neuropathies

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Bell Palsy

    Growth and Development of the Eye

    Examination of the Eye

    Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation

    Disorders of Vision

    Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris

    Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment

    Abnormalities of the Lids

    Disorders of the Lacrimal System

    Disorders of the Conjunctiva

    Abnormalities of the Cornea

    Abnormalities of the Lens

    Disorders of the Uveal Tract

    Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous

    Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve

    Childhood Glaucoma

    Orbital Abnormalities

    Orbital Infections

    Injuries to the Eye

    General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear

    Hearing Loss

    Congenital Malformations of the Ear

    External Otitis (Otitis Externa)

    Otitis Media

    Acute Mastoiditis

    The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth

    Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Morphology of the Skin

    Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient

    Cutaenous Manifestations of Systemic Disease

    Multisystemic Medication Reactions

    Principles of Dermatologic Therapy

    Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate

    Cutaneous Defects

    Ectodermal Dysplasias

    Vascular Disorders

    Cutaneous Nevi

    Hyperpigmented Lesions

    Hypopigmented Lesions

    Vesiculobullous Disorders

    Erythema Multiforme

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Mechanobullous Disorders

    Pemphigus

    Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Linear Immunoglobulin A Dermatosis (Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood)

    Eczematous Disorders

    Contact Dermatitis
    ChapTitle

    Overview of Pediatrics

    Child Health Disparities

    Racism

    Global Health

    Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children

    Safety in Healthcare for Children

    Ethics in Pediatric Care

    Pediatric Palliative Care

    Domestic and International Adoption

    Foster and Kinship Care

    Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child

    Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care

    Maximizing Children’s Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling

    Injury Control

    Impact of Violence on Children

    Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence

    Media Violence

    Effects of War on Children

    Child Trafficking

    Abused and Neglected Children

    Sexual Abuse

    Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy)

    Strategies for Health Behavior Change

    Developmental and Behavioral Theories

    Positive Parenting and Support

    Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development

    The Newborn

    The First Year

    Infant Crying and Colic

    The Second Year

    The Preschool Years

    Middle Childhood

    Adolescence

    Assessment of Growth

    Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance

    Childcare

    Loss, Separation, and Bereavement

    Sleep Medicine

    Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing

    Psychopharmacology

    Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Rumination and Pica

    Rumination Disorder

    Pica

    Motor Disorders and Habits

    Tic Disorders

    Stereotypic Movement Disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Major and Other Depressive Disorders

    Bipolar and Related Disorders

    Suicide and Attempted Suicide

    Eating Disorders

    Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders

    Tantrums and Breath-holding spells

    Lying, Stealing and Truancy

    Aggression

    Self-injurious behavior

    Childhood Psychoses

    Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

    Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy

    Catatonia in Children and Adolescents

    Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood

    Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Dyslexia

    Math and Writing Disabilities

    Math Disabilities

    Writing Disabilities

    Language Development and Communication Disorders

    Child-Onset Fluency Disorder

    Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability

    Intellectual Disability with Regression

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Nutritional Requirements

    Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Nutrition, Food Security, and Health

    Refeeding Syndrome

    Failure to Thrive

    Overweight and Obesity

    Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess

    Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    Niacin (Vitamin B3)

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Biotin

    Folate

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess

    Vitamin E Deficiency

    Vitamin K Deficiency

    Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies

    Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Composition of Body Fluids

    Regulation of Osmolality and Volume

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Magnesium

    Phosphorus

    Acid-Base Balance

    Maintenance and Replacement Therapy

    Deficit Therapy

    Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders

    Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics

    Principles of Drug Therapy

    Anesthesia and Perioperative Care

    Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Sedation and Procedural Pain

    Pediatric Pain Management

    Poisoning

    Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine

    Emergency Medical Services for Children

    Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient

    Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment

    Principles Applicable to the Developing World

    Triage of the Acutely Ill Child

    Resuscitation

    Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma

    Spinal Cord Injuries in Children

    Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations

    Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization

    Brain Death

    Syncope

    POTS

    Shock

    Respiratory Distress and Failure

    Mechanical Ventilation

    Long-term Mechanical Ventilation

    Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)

    Drowning and Submersion Injury

    Burn injuries

    Cold Injuries

    Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice

    Genetic Counseling

    Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders

    The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine

    The Human Genome

    Patterns of Genetic Transmission

    Cytogenetics

    Methods of Chromosome Analysis

    Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number

    Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure

    Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy

    Fragile Chromosome Sites

    Mosaicism

    Chromosome Instability Syndromes

    Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting

    Genetics of Common Disorders

    Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders

    Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease

    Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases

    An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids

    Phenylalanine

    Tyrosine

    Methionine

    Cysteine/Cystine

    Tryptophan

    Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias

    Glycine

    Serine

    Proline

    Glutamic Acid

    Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters

    Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine)

    Histidine

    Lysine

    N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease)

    Defects in Metabolism of Lipids

    Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation

    Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids

    Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport

    Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders)

    Mucolipidoses

    Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates

    Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Defects in Galactose Metabolism

    Defects in Fructose Metabolism

    Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis

    Defects in Pentose Metabolism

    Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation

    Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation

    Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders

    Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome

    The Porphyrias

    Hypoglycemia

    Overview of Mortality and Morbidity

    The Newborn Infant

    History in Neonatal Pediatrics

    Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant

    Routine Newborn Care

    Circumcision

    Parent-Infant Bonding

    High-Risk Pregnancies

    The Fetus

    Fetal Growth and Maturity

    Fetal Distress

    Maternal Disease and the Fetus

    Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus

    Teratogens

    Radiation

    Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease

    Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease

    Fetal Intervention and Surgery

    The High-Risk Infant

    Multiple Gestation Pregnancies

    Extreme and Very Preterm Infants

    Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants

    Term and Post-Term Infants

    Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge

    Infant Transport

    Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period

    Hyperthermia

    Neontal Cold Injury

    Edema

    Hypocalcemia (Tetany)

    Hypermanganazemia

    Nervous System Disorders

    The Cranium

    Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Spine and Spinal Cord

    Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies

    Respiratory Tract Disorders

    Transition to Pulmonary Respiration

    Apnea

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

    BPD

    PDA

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia)

    Meconium Aspiration

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation)

    Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Foramen of Morgagni Hernia

    Paraesophageal Hernia

    Eventration

    Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium)

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage

    Digestive System Disorders

    Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction

    Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

    Kernicterus

    Blood Disorders

    Anemia in the Newborn Infant

    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)

    Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia)

    Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant

    The Umbilicus

    Abstinence Syndromes

    Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal)

    Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes

    Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    The Endocrine System

    Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Dysmorphology

    Epidemiology of Infections

    Healthcare−Associated Infections (HAI)

    Congenital Infections

    Adolescent Physical and Social Development

    Gender and Sexual Identity

    Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents

    Transgender Care

    The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems

    Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents

    Legal Issues

    Screening Procedures

    Transitioning to Adult Care

    Violent Behavior

    Substance Abuse

    Alcohol

    Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    Marijuana

    Inhalants

    Hallucinogens

    Cocaine

    Amphetamines

    Stimulant Abuse and Diversion

    Opiates

    Bath salts and other drugs of abuse

    The Breast

    Menstrual Problems

    Amenorrhea

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Dysmenorrhea

    Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Contraception

    Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)

    Other Progestin-only Methods

    Combined Hormonal Contraceptives

    Emergency Contraception (EC)

    Dual Protection

    Other Barrier Methods

    Other Methods

    Adolescent Pregnancy

    Adolescent Sexual Assault

    Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency

    Lymphocyte Development and Function

    Primary Defects of Antibody Production

    Treatment of B-Cell Defects

    Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity

    Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Combined Immunodeficiency

    Defects of Innate Immunity

    Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency

    Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation

    Neutrophils

    Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells

    Eosinophils

    Disorders of Phagocyte Function

    Leukopenia

    Leukocytosis

    The Complement System

    Disorders of the Complement System

    Evaluation of the Complement System

    Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components

    Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins

    Secondary Disorders of Complement

    Treatment of Complement Disorders

    Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors

    Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease

    Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease

    Diagnosis of Allergic Disease

    Allergic Rhinitis

    Childhood Asthma

    Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)

    Insect Allergy

    Ocular Allergies

    Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema

    Anaphylaxis

    Serum Sickness

    Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods

    Adverse Reactions to Drugs

    Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease

    Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides

    Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Neonatal Lupus

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon

    Behçet Disease

    Sjögren Syndrome

    The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Amyloidosis

    Sarcoidosis

    Kawasaki Disease

    Vasculitis Syndromes

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    Takayasu Arteritis

    Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa

    ANCA-associated vasculitis

    Other Vasculitic Syndromes

    Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes

    Growing Pains

    Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Fibromyalgia

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Erythromelalgia

    Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis

    Diagnostic Microbiology

    The Microbiome and Pediatric Health

    Immunization Practices

    International Immunization Practices

    Infection Prevention and Control

    Childcare and Communicable Diseases

    Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally

    Fever

    Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos)

    Fever in the Older Child

    Fever of Unknown Origin

    Infections in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies

    Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infection Associated with Medical Devices

    Principles of Antibacterial Therapy

    Staphylococcus

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

    Group A Streptococcus

    Rheumatic Fever

    Group B Streptococcus

    Non-Group A or B Streptococci

    Enterococcus

    Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

    Listeria monocytogenes

    Actinomyces

    Nocardia

    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

    Kingella kingae

    Haemophilus influenzae

    Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

    Moraxella catarrhalis

    Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)

    Salmonella

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis

    Enteric Fever (Typhoid Fever)

    Shigella

    Escherichia coli

    Cholera

    Campylobacter

    Yersinia

    Yersinia enterocolitica

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas

    Aeromonas

    Plesiomonas shigelloides

    Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas

    Pseudomonas

    Burkholderia Cepacia Complex

    Stenotrophomonas

    Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

    Brucella

    Legionella

    Bartonella

    Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae)

    Bartonellosis (Bartonella bacilliformis)

    Trench Fever (Bartonella quintana)

    Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis Hepatis (Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana)

    Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

    Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)

    Clostridium difficile Infection

    Other Anaerobic Infections

    Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy

    Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

    Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections

    Yaws (Treponema pertenue)

    Bejel (Endemic Syphilis: Treponema pallidum endemicum)

    Pinta (Treponema carateum)

    Leptospira

    Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)

    Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum)

    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae

    Chlamydia trachomatis

    Trachoma

    Genital Tract Infections

    Conjunctivitis and Pneumonia in Newborns

    Lymphogranuloma Venereum

    Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

    Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)

    Mediterranean Spotted Fever or Boutonneuse Fever (Rickettsia conorii)

    Rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari)

    Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    Typhus Group Rickettsioses

    Murine (endemic or flea-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia typhi)

    Epidemic (louse-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii)

    Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmosis

    Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

    Principles of Antifungal Therapy

    Candida

    Neonatal Infections

    Infections in Immunocompetent Children and Adolescents

    Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Adolescents

    Cryptococcus neoformans

    Malassezia

    Aspergillus

    Allergic Disease (Hypersensitivity Syndromes)

    Saprophytic (Noninvasive) Syndromes

    Invasive Disease

    Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)

    Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)

    Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis)

    Pneumocystis Jirovecii

    Principles of Antiviral Therapy

    Measles

    Rubella

    Mumps

    Polioviruses

    Nonpolio Enteroviruses

    Parvoviruses

    Herpes Simplex Virus

    Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

    Epstein-Barr Virus

    Cytomegalovirus

    Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)

    Human Herpesvirus 8

    Influenza Viruses

    Parainfluenza Viruses

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Human Metapneumovirus

    Adenoviruses

    Rhinoviruses

    Coronaviruses

    Rotaviruses, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus

    Human Papillomaviruses

    Arboviral Infections

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Western Equine Encephalitis

    St. Louis Encephalitis

    West Nile Encephalitis

    Powassan Encephalitis

    LaCrosse and California Encephalitis

    Colorado Tick Fever

    Chikungunya Fever

    Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

    Japanese Encephalitis

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis

    Zika Virus

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Yellow Fever

    Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Rabies

    Polyomaviruses

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy

    Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    Amebiasis

    Giardiasis and Balantidiasis

    Giardia lamblia

    Balantidiasis

    Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia

    Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

    Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)

    African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei complex)

    American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)

    Malaria (Plasmodium)

    Babesiosis (Babesia)

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)

    Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)

    Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichuria)

    Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)

    Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)

    Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)

    Other Tissue Nematodes

    Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)

    Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)

    Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)

    Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)

    Adult Tapeworm Infections

    Cysticercosis

    Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)

    Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena

    Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders

    Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth

    Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions

    Malocclusion

    Cleft Lip and Palate

    Syndromes with Oral Manifestations

    Dental Caries

    Periodontal Diseases

    Dental Trauma

    Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues

    Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws

    Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus

    Common Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Aids

    Congenital Anomalies

    Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts

    Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus

    Dysmotility

    Hiatal Hernia

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non-GERD Esophagitis

    Esophageal Perforation

    Esophageal Varices

    Ingestions

    Foreign Bodies in the Esophagus

    Caustic Ingestions

    Normal Development, Structure, and Function

    Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach

    Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

    Congenital Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Gastric Duplication

    Gastric Volvulus

    Hypertrophic Gastropathy

    Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation

    Duodenal Obstruction

    Jejunal and Ileal Atresia and Obstruction

    Malrotation

    Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Intestinal Duplication

    Meckel Diverticulum and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease

    Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy

    Encopresis and Functional Constipation

    Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung Disease)

    Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Wilkie Syndrome, Cast Syndrome, Arteriomesenteric Duodenal Compression Syndrome)

    Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Ileus

    Adhesions

    Intussusception

    Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Foreign Bodies and Bezoars

    Foreign Bodies in the Stomach and Intestine

    Bezoars

    Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children

    Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Crohn Disease (Regional Enteritis, Regional lleitis, Granulomatous Colitis)

    Very Early Onset IBD

    Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Disorders of Malabsorption

    Evaluation of Children with Suspected Intestinal Malabsorption

    Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)

    Other Malabsorptive Syndromes

    Intestinal Infections and Infestations Associated with Malabsorption

    Immunodeficiency Disorders

    Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease

    Short Bowel Syndrome

    Chronic Malnutrition

    Enzyme Deficiencies

    Liver and Biliary Disorders Causing Malabsorption

    Rare Inborn Defects Causing Malabsorption

    Malabsorption in Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Malabsorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure

    Acute Gastroenteritis in Children

    Traveler's Diarrhea

    Chronic Diarrhea

    Diarrhea from Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Functional Abdominal pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal pain)

    Cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine

    Acute Appendicitis

    Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum

    Anorectal Malformations

    Anal Fissure

    Perianal Abscess and Fistula

    Hemorrhoids

    Rectal Mucosal Prolapse

    Pilonidal Sinus and Abscess

    Tumors of the Digestive Tract

    Inguinal Hernias

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology

    Anatomic Abnormalities

    Physiology

    Pancreatic Function Tests

    Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas

    Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Pancreatitis

    Acute Pancreatitis

    Chronic Pancreatitis

    Pseudocyst of the Pancreas

    Pancreatic Tumors

    Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System

    Manifestations of Liver Disease

    Evaluation of Patients with Possible Liver Dysfunction

    Cholestasis

    Neonatal Cholestasis

    Cholestasis in the Older Child

    Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Inherited Deficient Conjugation of Bilirubin (Familial Nonhemolytic Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia)

    Wilson Disease

    Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    Neonatal Iron Storage Disease

    Miscellaneous Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Viral Hepatitis

    Liver Abscess

    Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Mitochondrial Hepatopathies

    Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury

    Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver

    Diseases of the Gallbladder

    Portal Hypertension and Varices

    Liver Transplantation

    Malformations

    Ascites

    Chylous Ascites

    Peritonitis

    Acute Primary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Localized Peritonitis (Peritoneal Abscess)

    Epigastric Hernia

    Incisional Hernia

    Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease

    Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse (SUPC)

    BRUE / ALTE

    Congenital Disorders of the Nose

    Acquired Disorders of the Nose

    Foreign Body

    Epistaxis

    Nasal Polyps

    The Common Cold

    Sinusitis

    Acute Pharyngitis

    Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess

    Tonsils and Adenoids

    Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)

    Infectious Upper Airway Obstruction

    Bacterial Tracheitis

    Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Laryngomalacia

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Congenital Laryngeal Webs and Atresia

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Laryngoceles and Saccular Cysts

    Posterior Laryngeal Cleft and Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft

    Vascular and Cardiac Anomalies

    Tracheal Stenoses, Webs, and Atresia

    Foregut Cysts

    Tracheomalacia and Bronchomalacia

    Foreign Bodies of the Airway

    Laryngeal Foreign Bodies

    Tracheal Foreign Bodies

    Bronchial Foreign Bodies

    Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Acquired Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia

    Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Vocal Nodules

    Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Vascular Anomalies

    Other Laryngeal Neoplasms

    Tracheal Neoplasms

    Bronchial Tumors

    Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis

    Wheezing in Infants: Bronchiolitis

    Bronchitis

    Plastic Bronchitis

    Emphysema and Overinflation

    α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema

    Other Distal Airway Diseases

    Bronciolitis Obliterans

    Follicular Bronchitis

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    Congenital Disorders of the Lung

    Pulmonary Agenesis and Aplasia

    Pulmonary Hypoplasia

    Congenital Cystic Malformation

    Pulmonary Sequestration

    Bronchogenic Cysts

    Congenital Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia

    Lung Hernia

    Other Congenital Malformations of the Lung

    Pulmonary Edema

    Aspiration Syndromes

    Chronic Recurrent Aspiration

    Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonia

    Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease

    Granulomatous Lung Disease

    Eosinophilic Lung Disease

    Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Pleural Effusion and Empyema

    Dry or Plastic Pleural Effusion

    Serofibrinous or Serosanguineous Pleural Effusion

    Empyema

    Bronchiectasis

    Pulmonary Abscess

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)

    Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood

    Inherited Disorders of Surfactant Metabolism

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage

    Pulmonary Embolus and Infarction

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemoptysis

    Atelectasis

    Pulmonary Tumors

    Pneumothorax

    Pneumomediastinum

    Hydrothorax

    Hemothorax

    Chylothorax

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function

    Pectus Excavatum (Funnel Chest)

    Pectus Carinatum and Sternal Clefts

    Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (Thoracic-Pelvic-Phalangeal Dystrophy)

    Achondroplasia

    Kyphoscoliosis: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congential Scoliosis

    Congenital Rib Anomalies

    Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency

    Neuromuscular Diseases

    Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Other Conditions

    Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    Cardiac Development

    Early Cardiac Morphogenesis

    Cardiac Looping

    Cardiac Septation

    Aortic Arch Development

    Cardiac Differentiation

    Developmental Changes in Cardiac Function

    The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition

    The Fetal Circulation

    The Transitional Circulation

    The Neonatal Circulation

    History and Physical Examination

    Laboratory Evaluation

    Radiologic Assessment

    Electrocardiography

    Hematologic Data

    Echocardiography

    Exercise Testing

    MRI, MRA, CT, and Radionuclide Studies

    Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization

    Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease

    Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

    Atrial Septal Defect

    Ostium Secundum Defect

    Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Atrioventricular Septal Defects (Ostium Primum and Atrioventricular Canal or Endocardial Cushion Defects)

    Ventricular Septal Defect

    Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Aortopulmonary Window Defect

    Coronary Artery Fistula

    Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Obstructive Lesions

    Pulmonary Valve Stenosis with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Infundibular Pulmonary Stenosis and Double-Chamber Right Ventricle

    Pulmonary Stenosis in Combination with an Intracardiac Shunt

    Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis

    Aortic Stenosis

    Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation with Ventricular Septal Defect

    Coarctation with Other Cardiac Anomalies and Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Congenital Mitral Stenosis

    Pulmonary Venous Hypertension

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Regurgitant Lesions

    Pulmonary Valvular Insufficiency and Congenital Absence of the Pulmonary Valve

    Congenital Mitral Insufficiency

    Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Tricuspid Regurgitation

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation of the Critically Ill Neonate with Cyanosis and Respiratory Distress

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions: Lesions Associated with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Tetraology of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia

    Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Tricuspid Atresia

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    Ebstein Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Lesions Associated with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect

    L-Transposition of the Great Arteries (Corrected Transposition)

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Without Pulmonary Stenosis

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Malposition of the Great Arteries (Taussig-Bing Anomaly)

    Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Truncus Arteriosus

    Single Ventricle (Double-Inlet Ventricle, Univentricular Heart)

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Abnormal Positions of the Heart and the Heterotaxy Syndromes (Asplenia, Polysplenia)

    Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations

    Anomalies of the Aortic Arch

    Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries

    Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula

    Ectopia Cordis

    Diverticulum of the Left Ventricle

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Pulmonary Vascular Disease (Eisenmenger Syndrome)

    General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart

    Principles of Antiarrhythmic Therapy

    Sinus Arrhythmias and Extrasystoles

    Supraventricular Tachycardia

    Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

    Long Q-T Syndromes

    Sinus Node Dysfunction

    AV Blcok

    Sudden Death

    Infective Endocarditis

    Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Diseases of the Myocardium

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, and Endocardial Fibroelastosis

    Myocarditis

    Diseases of the Pericardium

    Acute Pericarditis

    Constrictive Pericarditis

    Tumors of the Heart

    Heart Failure

    Cardiogenic Shock

    Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Heart-Lung and Lung Transplantation

    Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)

    Kawasaki Disease

    Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Infantile Calcifications (GACI, IIAC, and ACDC)

    Systemic Hypertension

    Development of the Hematopoietic System

    The Anemias

    Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia )

    Pearson's Syndrome

    Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia

    Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease

    Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)

    Anemia of Renal Disease

    Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias

    Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

    Megaloblastic Anemias

    Folic Acid Deficiency

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency

    Other Rare Megaloblastic Anemias

    Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Other Microcytic Anemias

    Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias

    Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Hereditary Elliptocytosis

    Hereditary Stomatocytosis

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis

    Hemoglobinopathies

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle Cell Trait (Hemoglobin AS)

    Other Hemoglobinopathies

    Unstable Hemoglobin Disorders

    Abnormal Hemoglobins with Increased Oxygen Affinity

    Abnormal Hemoglobins Causing Cyanosis

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia with Deficiency of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase

    Syndromes of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH)

    Thalassemia Syndromes

    Enzymatic Defects

    Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    Other Glycolytic Enzyme Deficiencies

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related Deficiencies

    Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors- Immune Hemolytic Anemias

    Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors

    Polycythemia

    Non-Clonal Polycythemia

    The Inherited Pancytopenias

    The Acquired Pancytopenias

    Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy

    Platelet Transfusions

    Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions

    Plasma Transfusions

    Risks of Blood Transfusions

    Hemostasis

    The Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Hemostasis

    Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)

    Factor VIII or Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia A or B)

    Factor XI Deficiency (Hemophilia C)

    Deficiencies of the Contact Factors (Nonbleeding Disorders)

    Factor VII Deficiency

    Factor X Deficiency

    Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency

    Factor V Deficiency

    Combined Deficiency of Factors V and VIII

    Fibrinogen Deficiency (Factor I)

    Factor XIII Deficiency (Fibrin-Stabilizing Factor or Transglutaminase Deficiency)

    Antiplasmin or Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Deficiency

    von Willebrand Disease

    Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis

    Thrombotic Disorders in Children

    Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Therapy

    Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency

    Liver Disease

    Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders

    Idiopathic (Autoimmune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    Nonimmune Platelet Destruction

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

    Sequestration

    Congenital Thrombocytopenic Syndromes

    Neonatal Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia Due to Acquired Disorders Causing Decreased Production

    Platelet Function Disorders

    Acquired Disorders of Platelet Function

    Congenital Abnormalities of Platelet Function

    Disorders of the Blood Vessels

    Anatomy and Function of the Spleen

    Splenomegaly

    Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy

    Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System

    Abnormalities of Lymphatic vessels

    Lymphadenopathy

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis)

    Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease)

    Castleman Disease

    Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer

    Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

    Principles of Cancer Diagnosis

    Principles of Cancer Treatment

    The Leukemias

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Down Syndrome and Acute Leukemia and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Infant Leukemia

    Lymphoma

    Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Late Effects in Children and Adolescents with Lymphoma

    Brain Tumors in Childhood

    Neuroblastoma

    Neoplasms of the Kidney

    Wilms Tumor

    Other Pediatric Renal Tumors

    Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Neoplasms of Bone

    Malignant Tumors of Bone

    Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Processes of Bone

    Retinoblastoma

    Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms

    Neoplasms of the Liver

    Benign Vascular Tumors

    Hemangiomas

    Lymphangiomas and Cystic Hygromas

    Rare Tumors

    Thyroid Tumors

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

    Adrenal Tumors

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    Other Histiocytoses

    Introduction to Glomerular Diseases

    Anatomy of the Glomerulus

    Glomerular Filtration

    Glomerular Diseases

    Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria

    Isolated Renal Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (Berger Nephropathy)

    Alport Syndrome

    Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Membranous Nephropathy

    Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

    Multisystem Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Chronic Infections

    Glomerulonephritis Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Goodpasture Disease

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Toxic Nephropathy

    Cortical Necrosis

    Coagulopathies and Thrombocytopenia

    Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Pyelonephritis

    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    Papillary Necrosis

    Acute Tubular Necrosis

    Vascular Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Vascular Abnormalities

    Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Idiopathic Hypercalciuria

    Nephrocalcinosis

    Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria

    Congenital Anomalies

    Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney disease

    Trauma

    Renal Tumors

    Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria

    Infectious Causes of Cystitis and Urethritis

    Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Vigorous Exercise

    Clinical evaluation of the Child with Proteinuria

    Conditions Associated with Proteinuria

    Transient Proteinuria

    Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria

    Fixed Proteinuria

    Nephrotic Syndrome

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome

    Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome

    Tubular Function

    Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Proximal (Type II) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Distal (Type I) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Hyperkalemic (Type IV) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Rickets Associated with Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Bartter Syndrome

    Gitelman Syndrome

    Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Renal Failure

    Acute Kidney Injury

    Chronic Kidney Disease

    End-Stage Renal Disease

    Renal Transplantation

    Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys

    Urinary Tract Infections

    Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Obstruction of the Urinary Tract

    Anomalies of the Bladder

    Neuropathic Bladder

    Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction

    Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra

    Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents

    Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract

    Urinary Lithiasis

    Gynecologic History and Physical Examination

    Vulvovaginitis

    Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child

    Breast Concerns

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism

    Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus

    Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies

    Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs

    Female Genital Mutilation

    Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    Hypopituitarism

    Diabetes Insipidus

    Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action

    Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes

    Physiology of Puberty

    Disorders of Pubertal Development

    Central Precocious Puberty

    Precocious Puberty Resulting from Organic Brain Lesions

    Precocious Puberty Following Irradiation of the Brain

    Syndrome of Precocious Puberty and Hypothyroidism

    Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Tumors

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (Precocious Puberty with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and Abnormal Pigmentation)

    Familial Male Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

    Incomplete (Partial) Precocious Development

    Medicational Precocity

    Thyroid Development and Physiology

    Thyroid Hormone Studies

    Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

    Hypothyroidism

    Thyroiditis

    Goiter

    Congenital Goiter

    Intratracheal Goiter

    Endemic Goiter and Cretinism

    Acquired Goiter

    Thyrotoxicosis

    Graves Disease

    Congenital Hyperthyroidism

    Carcinoma of the Thyroid

    Solitary Thyroid Nodule

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome

    Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism

    Hypoparathyroidism

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy)

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Other Causes of Hypercalcemia

    Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

    Histology and Embryology

    Adrenal Steroid Biosynthesis

    Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenal Steroid Hormone Actions

    Adrenal Medulla

    Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Secondary and Tertiary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Adrenal Insufficiency in the Critical Care Setting

    Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Corticosteroids

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 3β-Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Deficiency of P450 Oxidoreductase (Antley-Bixler Syndrome)

    Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency

    Glucocorticoid-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism

    Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses

    Adrenal Carcinoma

    Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Adrenal Calcification

    Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors

    Cushing Syndrome

    Primary Aldosteronism

    Pheochromocytoma

    Development and Function of the Gonads

    Hypofunction of the Testes

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes

    Gynecomastia

    Hypofunction of the Ovaries

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Due to Lesions of the Ovary

    Disorders of Sex Development

    46,XX DSD

    46,XY DSD

    Ovotesticular DSD

    Diabetes Mellitus

    Classification

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Immune Mediated)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Other Specific Types of Diabetes

    Neurologic Evaluation

    Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System

    Neural Tube Defects

    Spina Bifida Occulta (Occult Spinal Dysraphism)

    Meningocele

    Myelomeningocele

    Encephalocele

    Anencephaly

    Disorders of Neuronal Migration

    Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Agenesis of the Cranial Nerves and Dysgenesis of the Posterior Fossa

    Microcephaly

    Hydrocephalus

    Craniosynostosis

    Deformational Plagiocephaly

    Seizures in Childhood

    Febrile Seizures

    Unprovoked Seizures

    "Partial Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    "

    Generalized Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    Mechanisms of Seizures

    Treatment of Seizures and Epilepsy

    Neonatal Seizures

    Status Epilepticus

    Reflex Seizures (Stimulus Precipitated Seizures)

    Nodding Syndrome

    Conditions that Mimic Seizures

    Headaches

    Migraine

    Secondary Headaches

    Tension-Type Headaches

    Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurofibromatosis

    Tuberous Sclerosis

    Sturge-Weber Symdrome (SWS)

    Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Linear Nevus Syndrome

    PHACE Syndrome

    Incontinentia Pigmenti

    Movement Disorders

    Ataxias

    Chorea, Athetosis, Tremor

    Myoclonus

    Dystonia

    Encephalopathies

    Cerebral Palsy

    Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    Other Encephalopathies

    Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood

    Sphingolipidoses

    Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Sialidosis

    Miscellaneous Disorders

    Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    Neuromyelitis Optica

    Transverse Myelitis

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

    Pediatric Stroke

    Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS)

    Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT)

    Spinal Cord Lesions Associated with Vascular Processes

    Hemorrhagic Stroke (HS)

    Differential Diagnosis of Stroke-Like Events

    CNS Vasculitis

    Central Nervous System Infections

    Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period

    Viral Meningoencephalitis

    Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Brain Abscess

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension / Pseudotumor Cerebri

    Spinal Cord Disorders

    Tethered Cord

    Diastematomyelia

    Syringomyelia

    Spinal Cord Tumors

    Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Evaluation and Investigation

    Developmental Disorders of Muscle

    Myotubular Myopathy (Centrionuclear Myopathy)

    Congenital Muscle Fiber-Type Disproportion

    Nemaline Rod Myopathy

    Core Myopathies

    Myofibrillar Myopathies

    Brain Malformations and Muscle Development

    Amyoplasia

    Muscular Dysgenesis (Proteus Syndrome Myopathy)

    Benign Congenital Hypotonia

    Arthrogryposis

    Muscular Dystrophies

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy/Laminopathies

    Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies

    Metabolic Myopathies

    Periodic Paralyses (Potassium-Related) and other Muscle Channelopathies

    Malignant Hyperthermia

    Glycogenoses

    Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Lipid Myopathies

    Vitamin E Deficiency Myopathy

    Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Spinal Muscular Atrophies

    Other Motor Neuron Diseases

    Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, HMSN Type IIa)

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Axonal Type)

    Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy and Déjerine-Sottas Disease (HMSN Type III)

    Roussy-Lévy Syndrome

    Refsum Disease (Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy,Type IV) and Infantile Refsum Disease

    Fabry Disease

    Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    Tomaculous (Hypermyelinating) Neuropathy; Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Leukodystrophies

    Toxic Neuropathies

    Autonomic Neuropathies

    Familial Dysautonomia

    Other Autonomic Neuropathies

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Bell Palsy

    Growth and Development of the Eye

    Examination of the Eye

    Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation

    Disorders of Vision

    Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris

    Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment

    Abnormalities of the Lids

    Disorders of the Lacrimal System

    Disorders of the Conjunctiva

    Abnormalities of the Cornea

    Abnormalities of the Lens

    Disorders of the Uveal Tract

    Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous

    Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve

    Childhood Glaucoma

    Orbital Abnormalities

    Orbital Infections

    Injuries to the Eye

    General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear

    Hearing Loss

    Congenital Malformations of the Ear

    External Otitis (Otitis Externa)

    Otitis Media

    Acute Mastoiditis

    The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth

    Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Morphology of the Skin

    Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient

    Cutaenous Manifestations of Systemic Disease

    Multisystemic Medication Reactions

    Principles of Dermatologic Therapy

    Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate

    Cutaneous Defects

    Ectodermal Dysplasias

    Vascular Disorders

    Cutaneous Nevi

    Hyperpigmented Lesions

    Hypopigmented Lesions

    Vesiculobullous Disorders

    Erythema Multiforme

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Mechanobullous Disorders

    Pemphigus

    Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Linear Immunoglobulin A Dermatosis (Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood)

    Eczematous Disorders

    Contact Dermatitis

    Nummular Eczema

    Pityriasis Alba

    Lichen Simplex Chronicus

    Acute Palmoplantar Eczema (Dyshidrotic Eczema, Dyshidrosis, Pompholyx)

    Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Photosensitivity

    Diseases of the Epidermis

    Psoriasis

    Pityriasis Lichenoides

    Keratosis Pilaris

    Lichen Spinulosus

    Pityriasis Rosea

    Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    Darier Disease (Keratosis Follicularis)

    Lichen Nitidus

    Lichen Striatus

    Lichen Planus

    Porokeratosis

    Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome (Papular Acrodermatitis)

    Acanthosis Nigricans

    Disorders of Keratinization

    Diseases of the Dermis

    Mast Cell Activation Syndrome

    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Diseases of Subcutaneous Tissue

    Panniculitis and Erythema Nodosum

    Lipodystrophy

    Disorders of the Sweat Glands

    Disorders of Hair

    Disorders of the Nails

    Disorders of the Mucous Membranes

    Cutaneous Bacterial Infections

    Impetigo

    Subcutaneous Tissue Infections

    Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter Disease)

    Ecthyma

    Other Cutaneous Bacterial Infections

    Cutaneous Fungal Infections

    Cutaneous Viral Infections

    Arthropod Bites and Infestations

    Arthropod Bites

    Scabies

    Pediculosis

    Seabather's Eruption

    Acne

    Tumors of the Skin

    Nutritional Dermatoses

    Growth and Development

    Evaluation of the Child

    The Foot and Toes

    Metatarsus Adductus

    Calcaneovalgus Feet

    Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot)

    Congenital Vertical Talus

    Hypermobile Pes Planus (Flexible Flatfeet)

    Tarsal Coalition

    Cavus Feet

    Osteochondroses/Apophysitis

    Puncture Wounds of the Foot

    Toe Deformities

    Painful Foot

    Shoes

    Torsional and Angular Deformities

    Normal Limb Development

    Evaluation

    Torsional Deformities

    Coronal Plane Deformities

    Congenital Angular Deformities of the Tibia and Fibula

    Leg-Length Discrepancy

    The Knee

    Discoid Lateral Meniscus

    Popliteal Cysts (Baker Cysts)

    Osteochondritis Dissecans

    Osgood-Schlatter Disease and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome

    Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Patellofemoral Instability

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    The Hip

    Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    Transient Monoarticular Synovitis (Toxic Synovitis)

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

    Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    The Spine

    Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Congenital Scoliosis

    Neuromuscular Scoliosis, Genetic Syndromes, and Compensatory Scoliosis

    Kyphosis (Round-Back)

    Back Pain in Children

    Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

    Spine Infection

    Intervertebral Disk Herniation/Slipped Vertebral Apophysis

    Tumors

    The Neck

    Torticollis

    Klippel-Feil Syndrome

    Cervical Anomalies and Instabilities

    The Upper Limb

    Arthrogryposis

    Common Fractures

    Unique Characteristics of Pediatric Fractures

    Pediatric Fracture Patterns

    Upper Extremity Fractures

    Fractures of the Lower Extremity

    Operative Treatment

    Complications of Fractures in Children

    Osteomyelitis

    Septic Arthritis

    Epidemiology and Prevention of Injuries

    Management of Musculoskeletal Injury

    Growth Plate Injuries

    Shoulder Injuries

    Elbow Injuries

    Low Back Injuries

    Hip and Pelvis Injuries

    Knee Injuries

    Lower Leg Pain: Shin Splints, Stress Fractures, and Chronic Compartent Syndrome

    Ankle Injuries

    Foot Injuries

    Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion)

    Cervical Spine Injuries

    Heat Injuries

    Female Athletes: Menstrual Problems and the Risk of Osteopenia

    Performance-Enhancing Aids

    Specific Sports and Associated Injuries

    General Considerations

    Disorders Involving Cartilage Matrix Proteins

    Disorders Involving Transmembrane Receptors

    Disorders Involving Ion Transporters

    Disorders Involving Transcription Factors

    Disorders Involving Defective Bone Resorption

    Disorders for Which Defects Are Poorly Understood or Unknown

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Marfan Syndrome

    Bone Structure, Growth, and Hormonal Regulation

    Hypophosphatasia

    Hyperphosphatasia

    Osteoporosis

    Evaluation of the Child for Rehabilitative Services

    Rehabilitation for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic Crisis Management

    Spasticity

    Birth Brachial Plexus Palsy

    Meningomyelocele (Spina Bifida)

    Ambulation Assistance

    Health and Wellness for Children with Disabilities

    Home Mechanical Ventilation and Technology Dependence

    Overview of Environmental Health and Children

    Biologic Effects of Radiation on Children

    Chemical Pollutants

    Tobacco

    Heavy Metal Intoxication

    Lead Poisoning

    Nonbacterial Food Poisoning

    Mushroom Poisoning

    Solanine Poisoning

    Seafood Poisoning

    Melamine Poisoning

    Biologic and Chemical Terrorism

    Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Animal and Human Bites

    Rat Bite Fever

    Monkeypox

    Envenomations

    Laboratory Testing in Infants and Children

    Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests

    ChapTitle

    Overview of Pediatrics

    Child Health Disparities

    Racism

    Global Health

    Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children

    Safety in Healthcare for Children

    Ethics in Pediatric Care

    Pediatric Palliative Care

    Domestic and International Adoption

    Foster and Kinship Care

    Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child

    Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care

    Maximizing Children’s Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling

    Injury Control

    Impact of Violence on Children

    Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence

    Media Violence

    Effects of War on Children

    Child Trafficking

    Abused and Neglected Children

    Sexual Abuse

    Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy)

    Strategies for Health Behavior Change

    Developmental and Behavioral Theories

    Positive Parenting and Support

    Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development

    The Newborn

    The First Year

    Infant Crying and Colic

    The Second Year

    The Preschool Years

    Middle Childhood

    Adolescence

    Assessment of Growth

    Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance

    Childcare

    Loss, Separation, and Bereavement

    Sleep Medicine

    Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing

    Psychopharmacology

    Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Rumination and Pica

    Rumination Disorder

    Pica

    Motor Disorders and Habits

    Tic Disorders

    Stereotypic Movement Disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Major and Other Depressive Disorders

    Bipolar and Related Disorders

    Suicide and Attempted Suicide

    Eating Disorders

    Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders

    Tantrums and Breath-holding spells

    Lying, Stealing and Truancy

    Aggression

    Self-injurious behavior

    Childhood Psychoses

    Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

    Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy

    Catatonia in Children and Adolescents

    Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood

    Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Dyslexia

    Math and Writing Disabilities

    Math Disabilities

    Writing Disabilities

    Language Development and Communication Disorders

    Child-Onset Fluency Disorder

    Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability

    Intellectual Disability with Regression

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Nutritional Requirements

    Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Nutrition, Food Security, and Health

    Refeeding Syndrome

    Failure to Thrive

    Overweight and Obesity

    Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess

    Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    Niacin (Vitamin B3)

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Biotin

    Folate

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess

    Vitamin E Deficiency

    Vitamin K Deficiency

    Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies

    Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Composition of Body Fluids

    Regulation of Osmolality and Volume

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Magnesium

    Phosphorus

    Acid-Base Balance

    Maintenance and Replacement Therapy

    Deficit Therapy

    Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders

    Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics

    Principles of Drug Therapy

    Anesthesia and Perioperative Care

    Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Sedation and Procedural Pain

    Pediatric Pain Management

    Poisoning

    Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine

    Emergency Medical Services for Children

    Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient

    Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment

    Principles Applicable to the Developing World

    Triage of the Acutely Ill Child

    Resuscitation

    Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma

    Spinal Cord Injuries in Children

    Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations

    Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization

    Brain Death

    Syncope

    POTS

    Shock

    Respiratory Distress and Failure

    Mechanical Ventilation

    Long-term Mechanical Ventilation

    Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)

    Drowning and Submersion Injury

    Burn injuries

    Cold Injuries

    Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice

    Genetic Counseling

    Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders

    The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine

    The Human Genome

    Patterns of Genetic Transmission

    Cytogenetics

    Methods of Chromosome Analysis

    Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number

    Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure

    Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy

    Fragile Chromosome Sites

    Mosaicism

    Chromosome Instability Syndromes

    Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting

    Genetics of Common Disorders

    Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders

    Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease

    Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases

    An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids

    Phenylalanine

    Tyrosine

    Methionine

    Cysteine/Cystine

    Tryptophan

    Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias

    Glycine

    Serine

    Proline

    Glutamic Acid

    Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters

    Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine)

    Histidine

    Lysine

    N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease)

    Defects in Metabolism of Lipids

    Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation

    Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids

    Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport

    Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders)

    Mucolipidoses

    Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates

    Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Defects in Galactose Metabolism

    Defects in Fructose Metabolism

    Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis

    Defects in Pentose Metabolism

    Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation

    Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation

    Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders

    Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome

    The Porphyrias

    Hypoglycemia

    Overview of Mortality and Morbidity

    The Newborn Infant

    History in Neonatal Pediatrics

    Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant

    Routine Newborn Care

    Circumcision

    Parent-Infant Bonding

    High-Risk Pregnancies

    The Fetus

    Fetal Growth and Maturity

    Fetal Distress

    Maternal Disease and the Fetus

    Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus

    Teratogens

    Radiation

    Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease

    Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease

    Fetal Intervention and Surgery

    The High-Risk Infant

    Multiple Gestation Pregnancies

    Extreme and Very Preterm Infants

    Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants

    Term and Post-Term Infants

    Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge

    Infant Transport

    Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period

    Hyperthermia

    Neontal Cold Injury

    Edema

    Hypocalcemia (Tetany)

    Hypermanganazemia

    Nervous System Disorders

    The Cranium

    Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Spine and Spinal Cord

    Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies

    Respiratory Tract Disorders

    Transition to Pulmonary Respiration

    Apnea

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

    BPD

    PDA

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia)

    Meconium Aspiration

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation)

    Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Foramen of Morgagni Hernia

    Paraesophageal Hernia

    Eventration

    Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium)

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage

    Digestive System Disorders

    Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction

    Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

    Kernicterus

    Blood Disorders

    Anemia in the Newborn Infant

    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)

    Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia)

    Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant

    The Umbilicus

    Abstinence Syndromes

    Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal)

    Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes

    Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    The Endocrine System

    Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Dysmorphology

    Epidemiology of Infections

    Healthcare−Associated Infections (HAI)

    Congenital Infections

    Adolescent Physical and Social Development

    Gender and Sexual Identity

    Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents

    Transgender Care

    The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems

    Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents

    Legal Issues

    Screening Procedures

    Transitioning to Adult Care

    Violent Behavior

    Substance Abuse

    Alcohol

    Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    Marijuana

    Inhalants

    Hallucinogens

    Cocaine

    Amphetamines

    Stimulant Abuse and Diversion

    Opiates

    Bath salts and other drugs of abuse

    The Breast

    Menstrual Problems

    Amenorrhea

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Dysmenorrhea

    Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Contraception

    Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)

    Other Progestin-only Methods

    Combined Hormonal Contraceptives

    Emergency Contraception (EC)

    Dual Protection

    Other Barrier Methods

    Other Methods

    Adolescent Pregnancy

    Adolescent Sexual Assault

    Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency

    Lymphocyte Development and Function

    Primary Defects of Antibody Production

    Treatment of B-Cell Defects

    Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity

    Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Combined Immunodeficiency

    Defects of Innate Immunity

    Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency

    Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation

    Neutrophils

    Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells

    Eosinophils

    Disorders of Phagocyte Function

    Leukopenia

    Leukocytosis

    The Complement System

    Disorders of the Complement System

    Evaluation of the Complement System

    Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components

    Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins

    Secondary Disorders of Complement

    Treatment of Complement Disorders

    Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors

    Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease

    Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease

    Diagnosis of Allergic Disease

    Allergic Rhinitis

    Childhood Asthma

    Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)

    Insect Allergy

    Ocular Allergies

    Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema

    Anaphylaxis

    Serum Sickness

    Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods

    Adverse Reactions to Drugs

    Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease

    Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides

    Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Neonatal Lupus

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon

    Behçet Disease

    Sjögren Syndrome

    The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Amyloidosis

    Sarcoidosis

    Kawasaki Disease

    Vasculitis Syndromes

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    Takayasu Arteritis

    Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa

    ANCA-associated vasculitis

    Other Vasculitic Syndromes

    Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes

    Growing Pains

    Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Fibromyalgia

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Erythromelalgia

    Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis

    Diagnostic Microbiology

    The Microbiome and Pediatric Health

    Immunization Practices

    International Immunization Practices

    Infection Prevention and Control

    Childcare and Communicable Diseases

    Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally

    Fever

    Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos)

    Fever in the Older Child

    Fever of Unknown Origin

    Infections in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies

    Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infection Associated with Medical Devices

    Principles of Antibacterial Therapy

    Staphylococcus

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

    Group A Streptococcus

    Rheumatic Fever

    Group B Streptococcus

    Non-Group A or B Streptococci

    Enterococcus

    Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

    Listeria monocytogenes

    Actinomyces

    Nocardia

    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

    Kingella kingae

    Haemophilus influenzae

    Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

    Moraxella catarrhalis

    Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)

    Salmonella

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis

    Enteric Fever (Typhoid Fever)

    Shigella

    Escherichia coli

    Cholera

    Campylobacter

    Yersinia

    Yersinia enterocolitica

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas

    Aeromonas

    Plesiomonas shigelloides

    Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas

    Pseudomonas

    Burkholderia Cepacia Complex

    Stenotrophomonas

    Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

    Brucella

    Legionella

    Bartonella

    Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae)

    Bartonellosis (Bartonella bacilliformis)

    Trench Fever (Bartonella quintana)

    Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis Hepatis (Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana)

    Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

    Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)

    Clostridium difficile Infection

    Other Anaerobic Infections

    Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy

    Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

    Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections

    Yaws (Treponema pertenue)

    Bejel (Endemic Syphilis: Treponema pallidum endemicum)

    Pinta (Treponema carateum)

    Leptospira

    Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)

    Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum)

    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae

    Chlamydia trachomatis

    Trachoma

    Genital Tract Infections

    Conjunctivitis and Pneumonia in Newborns

    Lymphogranuloma Venereum

    Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

    Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)

    Mediterranean Spotted Fever or Boutonneuse Fever (Rickettsia conorii)

    Rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari)

    Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    Typhus Group Rickettsioses

    Murine (endemic or flea-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia typhi)

    Epidemic (louse-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii)

    Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmosis

    Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

    Principles of Antifungal Therapy

    Candida

    Neonatal Infections

    Infections in Immunocompetent Children and Adolescents

    Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Adolescents

    Cryptococcus neoformans

    Malassezia

    Aspergillus

    Allergic Disease (Hypersensitivity Syndromes)

    Saprophytic (Noninvasive) Syndromes

    Invasive Disease

    Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)

    Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)

    Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis)

    Pneumocystis Jirovecii

    Principles of Antiviral Therapy

    Measles

    Rubella

    Mumps

    Polioviruses

    Nonpolio Enteroviruses

    Parvoviruses

    Herpes Simplex Virus

    Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

    Epstein-Barr Virus

    Cytomegalovirus

    Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)

    Human Herpesvirus 8

    Influenza Viruses

    Parainfluenza Viruses

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Human Metapneumovirus

    Adenoviruses

    Rhinoviruses

    Coronaviruses

    Rotaviruses, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus

    Human Papillomaviruses

    Arboviral Infections

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Western Equine Encephalitis

    St. Louis Encephalitis

    West Nile Encephalitis

    Powassan Encephalitis

    LaCrosse and California Encephalitis

    Colorado Tick Fever

    Chikungunya Fever

    Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

    Japanese Encephalitis

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis

    Zika Virus

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Yellow Fever

    Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Rabies

    Polyomaviruses

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy

    Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    Amebiasis

    Giardiasis and Balantidiasis

    Giardia lamblia

    Balantidiasis

    Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia

    Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

    Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)

    African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei complex)

    American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)

    Malaria (Plasmodium)

    Babesiosis (Babesia)

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)

    Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)

    Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichuria)

    Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)

    Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)

    Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)

    Other Tissue Nematodes

    Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)

    Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)

    Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)

    Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)

    Adult Tapeworm Infections

    Cysticercosis

    Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)

    Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena

    Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders

    Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth

    Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions

    Malocclusion

    Cleft Lip and Palate

    Syndromes with Oral Manifestations

    Dental Caries

    Periodontal Diseases

    Dental Trauma

    Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues

    Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws

    Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus

    Common Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Aids

    Congenital Anomalies

    Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts

    Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus

    Dysmotility

    Hiatal Hernia

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non-GERD Esophagitis

    Esophageal Perforation

    Esophageal Varices

    Ingestions

    Foreign Bodies in the Esophagus

    Caustic Ingestions

    Normal Development, Structure, and Function

    Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach

    Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

    Congenital Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Gastric Duplication

    Gastric Volvulus

    Hypertrophic Gastropathy

    Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation

    Duodenal Obstruction

    Jejunal and Ileal Atresia and Obstruction

    Malrotation

    Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Intestinal Duplication

    Meckel Diverticulum and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease

    Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy

    Encopresis and Functional Constipation

    Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung Disease)

    Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Wilkie Syndrome, Cast Syndrome, Arteriomesenteric Duodenal Compression Syndrome)

    Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Ileus

    Adhesions

    Intussusception

    Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Foreign Bodies and Bezoars

    Foreign Bodies in the Stomach and Intestine

    Bezoars

    Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children

    Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Crohn Disease (Regional Enteritis, Regional lleitis, Granulomatous Colitis)

    Very Early Onset IBD

    Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Disorders of Malabsorption

    Evaluation of Children with Suspected Intestinal Malabsorption

    Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)

    Other Malabsorptive Syndromes

    Intestinal Infections and Infestations Associated with Malabsorption

    Immunodeficiency Disorders

    Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease

    Short Bowel Syndrome

    Chronic Malnutrition

    Enzyme Deficiencies

    Liver and Biliary Disorders Causing Malabsorption

    Rare Inborn Defects Causing Malabsorption

    Malabsorption in Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Malabsorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure

    Acute Gastroenteritis in Children

    Traveler's Diarrhea

    Chronic Diarrhea

    Diarrhea from Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Functional Abdominal pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal pain)

    Cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine

    Acute Appendicitis

    Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum

    Anorectal Malformations

    Anal Fissure

    Perianal Abscess and Fistula

    Hemorrhoids

    Rectal Mucosal Prolapse

    Pilonidal Sinus and Abscess

    Tumors of the Digestive Tract

    Inguinal Hernias

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology

    Anatomic Abnormalities

    Physiology

    Pancreatic Function Tests

    Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas

    Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Pancreatitis

    Acute Pancreatitis

    Chronic Pancreatitis

    Pseudocyst of the Pancreas

    Pancreatic Tumors

    Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System

    Manifestations of Liver Disease

    Evaluation of Patients with Possible Liver Dysfunction

    Cholestasis

    Neonatal Cholestasis

    Cholestasis in the Older Child

    Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Inherited Deficient Conjugation of Bilirubin (Familial Nonhemolytic Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia)

    Wilson Disease

    Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    Neonatal Iron Storage Disease

    Miscellaneous Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Viral Hepatitis

    Liver Abscess

    Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Mitochondrial Hepatopathies

    Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury

    Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver

    Diseases of the Gallbladder

    Portal Hypertension and Varices

    Liver Transplantation

    Malformations

    Ascites

    Chylous Ascites

    Peritonitis

    Acute Primary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Localized Peritonitis (Peritoneal Abscess)

    Epigastric Hernia

    Incisional Hernia

    Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease

    Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse (SUPC)

    BRUE / ALTE

    Congenital Disorders of the Nose

    Acquired Disorders of the Nose

    Foreign Body

    Epistaxis

    Nasal Polyps

    The Common Cold

    Sinusitis

    Acute Pharyngitis

    Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess

    Tonsils and Adenoids

    Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)

    Infectious Upper Airway Obstruction

    Bacterial Tracheitis

    Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Laryngomalacia

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Congenital Laryngeal Webs and Atresia

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Laryngoceles and Saccular Cysts

    Posterior Laryngeal Cleft and Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft

    Vascular and Cardiac Anomalies

    Tracheal Stenoses, Webs, and Atresia

    Foregut Cysts

    Tracheomalacia and Bronchomalacia

    Foreign Bodies of the Airway

    Laryngeal Foreign Bodies

    Tracheal Foreign Bodies

    Bronchial Foreign Bodies

    Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Acquired Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia

    Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Vocal Nodules

    Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Vascular Anomalies

    Other Laryngeal Neoplasms

    Tracheal Neoplasms

    Bronchial Tumors

    Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis

    Wheezing in Infants: Bronchiolitis

    Bronchitis

    Plastic Bronchitis

    Emphysema and Overinflation

    α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema

    Other Distal Airway Diseases

    Bronciolitis Obliterans

    Follicular Bronchitis

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    Congenital Disorders of the Lung

    Pulmonary Agenesis and Aplasia

    Pulmonary Hypoplasia

    Congenital Cystic Malformation

    Pulmonary Sequestration

    Bronchogenic Cysts

    Congenital Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia

    Lung Hernia

    Other Congenital Malformations of the Lung

    Pulmonary Edema

    Aspiration Syndromes

    Chronic Recurrent Aspiration

    Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonia

    Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease

    Granulomatous Lung Disease

    Eosinophilic Lung Disease

    Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Pleural Effusion and Empyema

    Dry or Plastic Pleural Effusion

    Serofibrinous or Serosanguineous Pleural Effusion

    Empyema

    Bronchiectasis

    Pulmonary Abscess

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)

    Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood

    Inherited Disorders of Surfactant Metabolism

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage

    Pulmonary Embolus and Infarction

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemoptysis

    Atelectasis

    Pulmonary Tumors

    Pneumothorax

    Pneumomediastinum

    Hydrothorax

    Hemothorax

    Chylothorax

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function

    Pectus Excavatum (Funnel Chest)

    Pectus Carinatum and Sternal Clefts

    Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (Thoracic-Pelvic-Phalangeal Dystrophy)

    Achondroplasia

    Kyphoscoliosis: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congential Scoliosis

    Congenital Rib Anomalies

    Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency

    Neuromuscular Diseases

    Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Other Conditions

    Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    Cardiac Development

    Early Cardiac Morphogenesis

    Cardiac Looping

    Cardiac Septation

    Aortic Arch Development

    Cardiac Differentiation

    Developmental Changes in Cardiac Function

    The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition

    The Fetal Circulation

    The Transitional Circulation

    The Neonatal Circulation

    History and Physical Examination

    Laboratory Evaluation

    Radiologic Assessment

    Electrocardiography

    Hematologic Data

    Echocardiography

    Exercise Testing

    MRI, MRA, CT, and Radionuclide Studies

    Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization

    Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease

    Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

    Atrial Septal Defect

    Ostium Secundum Defect

    Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Atrioventricular Septal Defects (Ostium Primum and Atrioventricular Canal or Endocardial Cushion Defects)

    Ventricular Septal Defect

    Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Aortopulmonary Window Defect

    Coronary Artery Fistula

    Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Obstructive Lesions

    Pulmonary Valve Stenosis with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Infundibular Pulmonary Stenosis and Double-Chamber Right Ventricle

    Pulmonary Stenosis in Combination with an Intracardiac Shunt

    Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis

    Aortic Stenosis

    Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation with Ventricular Septal Defect

    Coarctation with Other Cardiac Anomalies and Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Congenital Mitral Stenosis

    Pulmonary Venous Hypertension

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Regurgitant Lesions

    Pulmonary Valvular Insufficiency and Congenital Absence of the Pulmonary Valve

    Congenital Mitral Insufficiency

    Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Tricuspid Regurgitation

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation of the Critically Ill Neonate with Cyanosis and Respiratory Distress

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions: Lesions Associated with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Tetraology of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia

    Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Tricuspid Atresia

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    Ebstein Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Lesions Associated with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect

    L-Transposition of the Great Arteries (Corrected Transposition)

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Without Pulmonary Stenosis

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Malposition of the Great Arteries (Taussig-Bing Anomaly)

    Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Truncus Arteriosus

    Single Ventricle (Double-Inlet Ventricle, Univentricular Heart)

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Abnormal Positions of the Heart and the Heterotaxy Syndromes (Asplenia, Polysplenia)

    Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations

    Anomalies of the Aortic Arch

    Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries

    Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula

    Ectopia Cordis

    Diverticulum of the Left Ventricle

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Pulmonary Vascular Disease (Eisenmenger Syndrome)

    General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart

    Principles of Antiarrhythmic Therapy

    Sinus Arrhythmias and Extrasystoles

    Supraventricular Tachycardia

    Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

    Long Q-T Syndromes

    Sinus Node Dysfunction

    AV Blcok

    Sudden Death

    Infective Endocarditis

    Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Diseases of the Myocardium

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, and Endocardial Fibroelastosis

    Myocarditis

    Diseases of the Pericardium

    Acute Pericarditis

    Constrictive Pericarditis

    Tumors of the Heart

    Heart Failure

    Cardiogenic Shock

    Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Heart-Lung and Lung Transplantation

    Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)

    Kawasaki Disease

    Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Infantile Calcifications (GACI, IIAC, and ACDC)

    Systemic Hypertension

    Development of the Hematopoietic System

    The Anemias

    Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia )

    Pearson's Syndrome

    Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia

    Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease

    Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)

    Anemia of Renal Disease

    Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias

    Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

    Megaloblastic Anemias

    Folic Acid Deficiency

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency

    Other Rare Megaloblastic Anemias

    Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Other Microcytic Anemias

    Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias

    Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Hereditary Elliptocytosis

    Hereditary Stomatocytosis

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis

    Hemoglobinopathies

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle Cell Trait (Hemoglobin AS)

    Other Hemoglobinopathies

    Unstable Hemoglobin Disorders

    Abnormal Hemoglobins with Increased Oxygen Affinity

    Abnormal Hemoglobins Causing Cyanosis

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia with Deficiency of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase

    Syndromes of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH)

    Thalassemia Syndromes

    Enzymatic Defects

    Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    Other Glycolytic Enzyme Deficiencies

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related Deficiencies

    Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors- Immune Hemolytic Anemias

    Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors

    Polycythemia

    Non-Clonal Polycythemia

    The Inherited Pancytopenias

    The Acquired Pancytopenias

    Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy

    Platelet Transfusions

    Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions

    Plasma Transfusions

    Risks of Blood Transfusions

    Hemostasis

    The Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Hemostasis

    Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)

    Factor VIII or Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia A or B)

    Factor XI Deficiency (Hemophilia C)

    Deficiencies of the Contact Factors (Nonbleeding Disorders)

    Factor VII Deficiency

    Factor X Deficiency

    Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency

    Factor V Deficiency

    Combined Deficiency of Factors V and VIII

    Fibrinogen Deficiency (Factor I)

    Factor XIII Deficiency (Fibrin-Stabilizing Factor or Transglutaminase Deficiency)

    Antiplasmin or Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Deficiency

    von Willebrand Disease

    Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis

    Thrombotic Disorders in Children

    Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Therapy

    Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency

    Liver Disease

    Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders

    Idiopathic (Autoimmune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    Nonimmune Platelet Destruction

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

    Sequestration

    Congenital Thrombocytopenic Syndromes

    Neonatal Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia Due to Acquired Disorders Causing Decreased Production

    Platelet Function Disorders

    Acquired Disorders of Platelet Function

    Congenital Abnormalities of Platelet Function

    Disorders of the Blood Vessels

    Anatomy and Function of the Spleen

    Splenomegaly

    Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy

    Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System

    Abnormalities of Lymphatic vessels

    Lymphadenopathy

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis)

    Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease)

    Castleman Disease

    Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer

    Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

    Principles of Cancer Diagnosis

    Principles of Cancer Treatment

    The Leukemias

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Down Syndrome and Acute Leukemia and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Infant Leukemia

    Lymphoma

    Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Late Effects in Children and Adolescents with Lymphoma

    Brain Tumors in Childhood

    Neuroblastoma

    Neoplasms of the Kidney

    Wilms Tumor

    Other Pediatric Renal Tumors

    Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Neoplasms of Bone

    Malignant Tumors of Bone

    Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Processes of Bone

    Retinoblastoma

    Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms

    Neoplasms of the Liver

    Benign Vascular Tumors

    Hemangiomas

    Lymphangiomas and Cystic Hygromas

    Rare Tumors

    Thyroid Tumors

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

    Adrenal Tumors

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    Other Histiocytoses

    Introduction to Glomerular Diseases

    Anatomy of the Glomerulus

    Glomerular Filtration

    Glomerular Diseases

    Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria

    Isolated Renal Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (Berger Nephropathy)

    Alport Syndrome

    Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Membranous Nephropathy

    Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

    Multisystem Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Chronic Infections

    Glomerulonephritis Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Goodpasture Disease

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Toxic Nephropathy

    Cortical Necrosis

    Coagulopathies and Thrombocytopenia

    Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Pyelonephritis

    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    Papillary Necrosis

    Acute Tubular Necrosis

    Vascular Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Vascular Abnormalities

    Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Idiopathic Hypercalciuria

    Nephrocalcinosis

    Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria

    Congenital Anomalies

    Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney disease

    Trauma

    Renal Tumors

    Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria

    Infectious Causes of Cystitis and Urethritis

    Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Vigorous Exercise

    Clinical evaluation of the Child with Proteinuria

    Conditions Associated with Proteinuria

    Transient Proteinuria

    Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria

    Fixed Proteinuria

    Nephrotic Syndrome

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome

    Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome

    Tubular Function

    Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Proximal (Type II) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Distal (Type I) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Hyperkalemic (Type IV) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Rickets Associated with Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Bartter Syndrome

    Gitelman Syndrome

    Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Renal Failure

    Acute Kidney Injury

    Chronic Kidney Disease

    End-Stage Renal Disease

    Renal Transplantation

    Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys

    Urinary Tract Infections

    Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Obstruction of the Urinary Tract

    Anomalies of the Bladder

    Neuropathic Bladder

    Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction

    Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra

    Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents

    Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract

    Urinary Lithiasis

    Gynecologic History and Physical Examination

    Vulvovaginitis

    Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child

    Breast Concerns

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism

    Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus

    Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies

    Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs

    Female Genital Mutilation

    Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    Hypopituitarism

    Diabetes Insipidus

    Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action

    Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes

    Physiology of Puberty

    Disorders of Pubertal Development

    Central Precocious Puberty

    Precocious Puberty Resulting from Organic Brain Lesions

    Precocious Puberty Following Irradiation of the Brain

    Syndrome of Precocious Puberty and Hypothyroidism

    Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Tumors

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (Precocious Puberty with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and Abnormal Pigmentation)

    Familial Male Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

    Incomplete (Partial) Precocious Development

    Medicational Precocity

    Thyroid Development and Physiology

    Thyroid Hormone Studies

    Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

    Hypothyroidism

    Thyroiditis

    Goiter

    Congenital Goiter

    Intratracheal Goiter

    Endemic Goiter and Cretinism

    Acquired Goiter

    Thyrotoxicosis

    Graves Disease

    Congenital Hyperthyroidism

    Carcinoma of the Thyroid

    Solitary Thyroid Nodule

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome

    Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism

    Hypoparathyroidism

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy)

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Other Causes of Hypercalcemia

    Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

    Histology and Embryology

    Adrenal Steroid Biosynthesis

    Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenal Steroid Hormone Actions

    Adrenal Medulla

    Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Secondary and Tertiary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Adrenal Insufficiency in the Critical Care Setting

    Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Corticosteroids

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 3β-Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Deficiency of P450 Oxidoreductase (Antley-Bixler Syndrome)

    Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency

    Glucocorticoid-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism

    Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses

    Adrenal Carcinoma

    Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Adrenal Calcification

    Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors

    Cushing Syndrome

    Primary Aldosteronism

    Pheochromocytoma

    Development and Function of the Gonads

    Hypofunction of the Testes

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes

    Gynecomastia

    Hypofunction of the Ovaries

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Due to Lesions of the Ovary

    Disorders of Sex Development

    46,XX DSD

    46,XY DSD

    Ovotesticular DSD

    Diabetes Mellitus

    Classification

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Immune Mediated)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Other Specific Types of Diabetes

    Neurologic Evaluation

    Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System

    Neural Tube Defects

    Spina Bifida Occulta (Occult Spinal Dysraphism)

    Meningocele

    Myelomeningocele

    Encephalocele

    Anencephaly

    Disorders of Neuronal Migration

    Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Agenesis of the Cranial Nerves and Dysgenesis of the Posterior Fossa

    Microcephaly

    Hydrocephalus

    Craniosynostosis

    Deformational Plagiocephaly

    Seizures in Childhood

    Febrile Seizures

    Unprovoked Seizures

    "Partial Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    "

    Generalized Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    Mechanisms of Seizures

    Treatment of Seizures and Epilepsy

    Neonatal Seizures

    Status Epilepticus

    Reflex Seizures (Stimulus Precipitated Seizures)

    Nodding Syndrome

    Conditions that Mimic Seizures

    Headaches

    Migraine

    Secondary Headaches

    Tension-Type Headaches

    Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurofibromatosis

    Tuberous Sclerosis

    Sturge-Weber Symdrome (SWS)

    Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Linear Nevus Syndrome

    PHACE Syndrome

    Incontinentia Pigmenti

    Movement Disorders

    Ataxias

    Chorea, Athetosis, Tremor

    Myoclonus

    Dystonia

    Encephalopathies

    Cerebral Palsy

    Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    Other Encephalopathies

    Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood

    Sphingolipidoses

    Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Sialidosis

    Miscellaneous Disorders

    Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    Neuromyelitis Optica

    Transverse Myelitis

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

    Pediatric Stroke

    Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS)

    Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT)

    Spinal Cord Lesions Associated with Vascular Processes

    Hemorrhagic Stroke (HS)

    Differential Diagnosis of Stroke-Like Events

    CNS Vasculitis

    Central Nervous System Infections

    Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period

    Viral Meningoencephalitis

    Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Brain Abscess

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension / Pseudotumor Cerebri

    Spinal Cord Disorders

    Tethered Cord

    Diastematomyelia

    Syringomyelia

    Spinal Cord Tumors

    Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Evaluation and Investigation

    Developmental Disorders of Muscle

    Myotubular Myopathy (Centrionuclear Myopathy)

    Congenital Muscle Fiber-Type Disproportion

    Nemaline Rod Myopathy

    Core Myopathies

    Myofibrillar Myopathies

    Brain Malformations and Muscle Development

    Amyoplasia

    Muscular Dysgenesis (Proteus Syndrome Myopathy)

    Benign Congenital Hypotonia

    Arthrogryposis

    Muscular Dystrophies

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy/Laminopathies

    Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies

    Metabolic Myopathies

    Periodic Paralyses (Potassium-Related) and other Muscle Channelopathies

    Malignant Hyperthermia

    Glycogenoses

    Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Lipid Myopathies

    Vitamin E Deficiency Myopathy

    Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Spinal Muscular Atrophies

    Other Motor Neuron Diseases

    Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, HMSN Type IIa)

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Axonal Type)

    Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy and Déjerine-Sottas Disease (HMSN Type III)

    Roussy-Lévy Syndrome

    Refsum Disease (Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy,Type IV) and Infantile Refsum Disease

    Fabry Disease

    Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    Tomaculous (Hypermyelinating) Neuropathy; Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Leukodystrophies

    Toxic Neuropathies

    Autonomic Neuropathies

    Familial Dysautonomia

    Other Autonomic Neuropathies

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Bell Palsy

    Growth and Development of the Eye

    Examination of the Eye

    Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation

    Disorders of Vision

    Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris

    Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment

    Abnormalities of the Lids

    Disorders of the Lacrimal System

    Disorders of the Conjunctiva

    Abnormalities of the Cornea

    Abnormalities of the Lens

    Disorders of the Uveal Tract

    Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous

    Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve

    Childhood Glaucoma

    Orbital Abnormalities

    Orbital Infections

    Injuries to the Eye

    General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear

    Hearing Loss

    Congenital Malformations of the Ear

    External Otitis (Otitis Externa)

    Otitis Media

    Acute Mastoiditis

    The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth

    Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Morphology of the Skin

    Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient

    Cutaenous Manifestations of Systemic Disease

    Multisystemic Medication Reactions

    Principles of Dermatologic Therapy

    Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate

    Cutaneous Defects

    Ectodermal Dysplasias

    Vascular Disorders

    Cutaneous Nevi

    Hyperpigmented Lesions

    Hypopigmented Lesions

    Vesiculobullous Disorders

    Erythema Multiforme

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Mechanobullous Disorders

    Pemphigus

    Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Linear Immunoglobulin A Dermatosis (Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood)

    Eczematous Disorders

    Contact Dermatitis
    ChapTitle

    Overview of Pediatrics

    Child Health Disparities

    Racism

    Global Health

    Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children

    Safety in Healthcare for Children

    Ethics in Pediatric Care

    Pediatric Palliative Care

    Domestic and International Adoption

    Foster and Kinship Care

    Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child

    Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care

    Maximizing Children’s Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling

    Injury Control

    Impact of Violence on Children

    Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence

    Media Violence

    Effects of War on Children

    Child Trafficking

    Abused and Neglected Children

    Sexual Abuse

    Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy)

    Strategies for Health Behavior Change

    Developmental and Behavioral Theories

    Positive Parenting and Support

    Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development

    The Newborn

    The First Year

    Infant Crying and Colic

    The Second Year

    The Preschool Years

    Middle Childhood

    Adolescence

    Assessment of Growth

    Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance

    Childcare

    Loss, Separation, and Bereavement

    Sleep Medicine

    Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing

    Psychopharmacology

    Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Rumination and Pica

    Rumination Disorder

    Pica

    Motor Disorders and Habits

    Tic Disorders

    Stereotypic Movement Disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Major and Other Depressive Disorders

    Bipolar and Related Disorders

    Suicide and Attempted Suicide

    Eating Disorders

    Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders

    Tantrums and Breath-holding spells

    Lying, Stealing and Truancy

    Aggression

    Self-injurious behavior

    Childhood Psychoses

    Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

    Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy

    Catatonia in Children and Adolescents

    Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood

    Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Dyslexia

    Math and Writing Disabilities

    Math Disabilities

    Writing Disabilities

    Language Development and Communication Disorders

    Child-Onset Fluency Disorder

    Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability

    Intellectual Disability with Regression

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Nutritional Requirements

    Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Nutrition, Food Security, and Health

    Refeeding Syndrome

    Failure to Thrive

    Overweight and Obesity

    Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess

    Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    Niacin (Vitamin B3)

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Biotin

    Folate

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess

    Vitamin E Deficiency

    Vitamin K Deficiency

    Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies

    Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Composition of Body Fluids

    Regulation of Osmolality and Volume

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Magnesium

    Phosphorus

    Acid-Base Balance

    Maintenance and Replacement Therapy

    Deficit Therapy

    Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders

    Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics

    Principles of Drug Therapy

    Anesthesia and Perioperative Care

    Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Sedation and Procedural Pain

    Pediatric Pain Management

    Poisoning

    Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine

    Emergency Medical Services for Children

    Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient

    Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment

    Principles Applicable to the Developing World

    Triage of the Acutely Ill Child

    Resuscitation

    Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma

    Spinal Cord Injuries in Children

    Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations

    Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization

    Brain Death

    Syncope

    POTS

    Shock

    Respiratory Distress and Failure

    Mechanical Ventilation

    Long-term Mechanical Ventilation

    Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)

    Drowning and Submersion Injury

    Burn injuries

    Cold Injuries

    Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice

    Genetic Counseling

    Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders

    The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine

    The Human Genome

    Patterns of Genetic Transmission

    Cytogenetics

    Methods of Chromosome Analysis

    Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number

    Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure

    Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy

    Fragile Chromosome Sites

    Mosaicism

    Chromosome Instability Syndromes

    Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting

    Genetics of Common Disorders

    Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders

    Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease

    Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases

    An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids

    Phenylalanine

    Tyrosine

    Methionine

    Cysteine/Cystine

    Tryptophan

    Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias

    Glycine

    Serine

    Proline

    Glutamic Acid

    Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters

    Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine)

    Histidine

    Lysine

    N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease)

    Defects in Metabolism of Lipids

    Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation

    Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids

    Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport

    Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders)

    Mucolipidoses

    Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates

    Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Defects in Galactose Metabolism

    Defects in Fructose Metabolism

    Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis

    Defects in Pentose Metabolism

    Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation

    Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation

    Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders

    Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome

    The Porphyrias

    Hypoglycemia

    Overview of Mortality and Morbidity

    The Newborn Infant

    History in Neonatal Pediatrics

    Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant

    Routine Newborn Care

    Circumcision

    Parent-Infant Bonding

    High-Risk Pregnancies

    The Fetus

    Fetal Growth and Maturity

    Fetal Distress

    Maternal Disease and the Fetus

    Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus

    Teratogens

    Radiation

    Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease

    Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease

    Fetal Intervention and Surgery

    The High-Risk Infant

    Multiple Gestation Pregnancies

    Extreme and Very Preterm Infants

    Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants

    Term and Post-Term Infants

    Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge

    Infant Transport

    Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period

    Hyperthermia

    Neontal Cold Injury

    Edema

    Hypocalcemia (Tetany)

    Hypermanganazemia

    Nervous System Disorders

    The Cranium

    Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Spine and Spinal Cord

    Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies

    Respiratory Tract Disorders

    Transition to Pulmonary Respiration

    Apnea

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

    BPD

    PDA

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia)

    Meconium Aspiration

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation)

    Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Foramen of Morgagni Hernia

    Paraesophageal Hernia

    Eventration

    Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium)

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage

    Digestive System Disorders

    Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction

    Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

    Kernicterus

    Blood Disorders

    Anemia in the Newborn Infant

    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)

    Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia)

    Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant

    The Umbilicus

    Abstinence Syndromes

    Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal)

    Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes

    Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    The Endocrine System

    Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Dysmorphology

    Epidemiology of Infections

    Healthcare−Associated Infections (HAI)

    Congenital Infections

    Adolescent Physical and Social Development

    Gender and Sexual Identity

    Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents

    Transgender Care

    The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems

    Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents

    Legal Issues

    Screening Procedures

    Transitioning to Adult Care

    Violent Behavior

    Substance Abuse

    Alcohol

    Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    Marijuana

    Inhalants

    Hallucinogens

    Cocaine

    Amphetamines

    Stimulant Abuse and Diversion

    Opiates

    Bath salts and other drugs of abuse

    The Breast

    Menstrual Problems

    Amenorrhea

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Dysmenorrhea

    Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Contraception

    Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)

    Other Progestin-only Methods

    Combined Hormonal Contraceptives

    Emergency Contraception (EC)

    Dual Protection

    Other Barrier Methods

    Other Methods

    Adolescent Pregnancy

    Adolescent Sexual Assault

    Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency

    Lymphocyte Development and Function

    Primary Defects of Antibody Production

    Treatment of B-Cell Defects

    Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity

    Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Combined Immunodeficiency

    Defects of Innate Immunity

    Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency

    Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation

    Neutrophils

    Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells

    Eosinophils

    Disorders of Phagocyte Function

    Leukopenia

    Leukocytosis

    The Complement System

    Disorders of the Complement System

    Evaluation of the Complement System

    Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components

    Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins

    Secondary Disorders of Complement

    Treatment of Complement Disorders

    Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors

    Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease

    Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease

    Diagnosis of Allergic Disease

    Allergic Rhinitis

    Childhood Asthma

    Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)

    Insect Allergy

    Ocular Allergies

    Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema

    Anaphylaxis

    Serum Sickness

    Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods

    Adverse Reactions to Drugs

    Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease

    Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides

    Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Neonatal Lupus

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon

    Behçet Disease

    Sjögren Syndrome

    The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Amyloidosis

    Sarcoidosis

    Kawasaki Disease

    Vasculitis Syndromes

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    Takayasu Arteritis

    Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa

    ANCA-associated vasculitis

    Other Vasculitic Syndromes

    Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes

    Growing Pains

    Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Fibromyalgia

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Erythromelalgia

    Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis

    Diagnostic Microbiology

    The Microbiome and Pediatric Health

    Immunization Practices

    International Immunization Practices

    Infection Prevention and Control

    Childcare and Communicable Diseases

    Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally

    Fever

    Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos)

    Fever in the Older Child

    Fever of Unknown Origin

    Infections in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies

    Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infection Associated with Medical Devices

    Principles of Antibacterial Therapy

    Staphylococcus

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

    Group A Streptococcus

    Rheumatic Fever

    Group B Streptococcus

    Non-Group A or B Streptococci

    Enterococcus

    Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

    Listeria monocytogenes

    Actinomyces

    Nocardia

    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

    Kingella kingae

    Haemophilus influenzae

    Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

    Moraxella catarrhalis

    Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)

    Salmonella

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis

    Enteric Fever (Typhoid Fever)

    Shigella

    Escherichia coli

    Cholera

    Campylobacter

    Yersinia

    Yersinia enterocolitica

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas

    Aeromonas

    Plesiomonas shigelloides

    Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas

    Pseudomonas

    Burkholderia Cepacia Complex

    Stenotrophomonas

    Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

    Brucella

    Legionella

    Bartonella

    Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae)

    Bartonellosis (Bartonella bacilliformis)

    Trench Fever (Bartonella quintana)

    Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis Hepatis (Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana)

    Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

    Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)

    Clostridium difficile Infection

    Other Anaerobic Infections

    Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy

    Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

    Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections

    Yaws (Treponema pertenue)

    Bejel (Endemic Syphilis: Treponema pallidum endemicum)

    Pinta (Treponema carateum)

    Leptospira

    Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)

    Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum)

    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae

    Chlamydia trachomatis

    Trachoma

    Genital Tract Infections

    Conjunctivitis and Pneumonia in Newborns

    Lymphogranuloma Venereum

    Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

    Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)

    Mediterranean Spotted Fever or Boutonneuse Fever (Rickettsia conorii)

    Rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari)

    Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    Typhus Group Rickettsioses

    Murine (endemic or flea-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia typhi)

    Epidemic (louse-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii)

    Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmosis

    Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

    Principles of Antifungal Therapy

    Candida

    Neonatal Infections

    Infections in Immunocompetent Children and Adolescents

    Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Adolescents

    Cryptococcus neoformans

    Malassezia

    Aspergillus

    Allergic Disease (Hypersensitivity Syndromes)

    Saprophytic (Noninvasive) Syndromes

    Invasive Disease

    Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)

    Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)

    Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis)

    Pneumocystis Jirovecii

    Principles of Antiviral Therapy

    Measles

    Rubella

    Mumps

    Polioviruses

    Nonpolio Enteroviruses

    Parvoviruses

    Herpes Simplex Virus

    Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

    Epstein-Barr Virus

    Cytomegalovirus

    Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)

    Human Herpesvirus 8

    Influenza Viruses

    Parainfluenza Viruses

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Human Metapneumovirus

    Adenoviruses

    Rhinoviruses

    Coronaviruses

    Rotaviruses, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus

    Human Papillomaviruses

    Arboviral Infections

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Western Equine Encephalitis

    St. Louis Encephalitis

    West Nile Encephalitis

    Powassan Encephalitis

    LaCrosse and California Encephalitis

    Colorado Tick Fever

    Chikungunya Fever

    Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

    Japanese Encephalitis

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis

    Zika Virus

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Yellow Fever

    Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Rabies

    Polyomaviruses

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy

    Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    Amebiasis

    Giardiasis and Balantidiasis

    Giardia lamblia

    Balantidiasis

    Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia

    Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

    Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)

    African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei complex)

    American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)

    Malaria (Plasmodium)

    Babesiosis (Babesia)

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)

    Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)

    Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichuria)

    Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)

    Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)

    Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)

    Other Tissue Nematodes

    Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)

    Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)

    Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)

    Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)

    Adult Tapeworm Infections

    Cysticercosis

    Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)

    Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena

    Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders

    Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth

    Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions

    Malocclusion

    Cleft Lip and Palate

    Syndromes with Oral Manifestations

    Dental Caries

    Periodontal Diseases

    Dental Trauma

    Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues

    Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws

    Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus

    Common Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Aids

    Congenital Anomalies

    Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts

    Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus

    Dysmotility

    Hiatal Hernia

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non-GERD Esophagitis

    Esophageal Perforation

    Esophageal Varices

    Ingestions

    Foreign Bodies in the Esophagus

    Caustic Ingestions

    Normal Development, Structure, and Function

    Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach

    Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

    Congenital Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Gastric Duplication

    Gastric Volvulus

    Hypertrophic Gastropathy

    Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation

    Duodenal Obstruction

    Jejunal and Ileal Atresia and Obstruction

    Malrotation

    Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Intestinal Duplication

    Meckel Diverticulum and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease

    Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy

    Encopresis and Functional Constipation

    Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung Disease)

    Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Wilkie Syndrome, Cast Syndrome, Arteriomesenteric Duodenal Compression Syndrome)

    Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Ileus

    Adhesions

    Intussusception

    Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Foreign Bodies and Bezoars

    Foreign Bodies in the Stomach and Intestine

    Bezoars

    Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children

    Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Crohn Disease (Regional Enteritis, Regional lleitis, Granulomatous Colitis)

    Very Early Onset IBD

    Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Disorders of Malabsorption

    Evaluation of Children with Suspected Intestinal Malabsorption

    Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)

    Other Malabsorptive Syndromes

    Intestinal Infections and Infestations Associated with Malabsorption

    Immunodeficiency Disorders

    Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease

    Short Bowel Syndrome

    Chronic Malnutrition

    Enzyme Deficiencies

    Liver and Biliary Disorders Causing Malabsorption

    Rare Inborn Defects Causing Malabsorption

    Malabsorption in Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Malabsorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure

    Acute Gastroenteritis in Children

    Traveler's Diarrhea

    Chronic Diarrhea

    Diarrhea from Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Functional Abdominal pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal pain)

    Cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine

    Acute Appendicitis

    Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum

    Anorectal Malformations

    Anal Fissure

    Perianal Abscess and Fistula

    Hemorrhoids

    Rectal Mucosal Prolapse

    Pilonidal Sinus and Abscess

    Tumors of the Digestive Tract

    Inguinal Hernias

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology

    Anatomic Abnormalities

    Physiology

    Pancreatic Function Tests

    Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas

    Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Pancreatitis

    Acute Pancreatitis

    Chronic Pancreatitis

    Pseudocyst of the Pancreas

    Pancreatic Tumors

    Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System

    Manifestations of Liver Disease

    Evaluation of Patients with Possible Liver Dysfunction

    Cholestasis

    Neonatal Cholestasis

    Cholestasis in the Older Child

    Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Inherited Deficient Conjugation of Bilirubin (Familial Nonhemolytic Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia)

    Wilson Disease

    Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    Neonatal Iron Storage Disease

    Miscellaneous Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Viral Hepatitis

    Liver Abscess

    Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Mitochondrial Hepatopathies

    Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury

    Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver

    Diseases of the Gallbladder

    Portal Hypertension and Varices

    Liver Transplantation

    Malformations

    Ascites

    Chylous Ascites

    Peritonitis

    Acute Primary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Localized Peritonitis (Peritoneal Abscess)

    Epigastric Hernia

    Incisional Hernia

    Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease

    Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse (SUPC)

    BRUE / ALTE

    Congenital Disorders of the Nose

    Acquired Disorders of the Nose

    Foreign Body

    Epistaxis

    Nasal Polyps

    The Common Cold

    Sinusitis

    Acute Pharyngitis

    Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess

    Tonsils and Adenoids

    Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)

    Infectious Upper Airway Obstruction

    Bacterial Tracheitis

    Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Laryngomalacia

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Congenital Laryngeal Webs and Atresia

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Laryngoceles and Saccular Cysts

    Posterior Laryngeal Cleft and Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft

    Vascular and Cardiac Anomalies

    Tracheal Stenoses, Webs, and Atresia

    Foregut Cysts

    Tracheomalacia and Bronchomalacia

    Foreign Bodies of the Airway

    Laryngeal Foreign Bodies

    Tracheal Foreign Bodies

    Bronchial Foreign Bodies

    Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Acquired Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia

    Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Vocal Nodules

    Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Vascular Anomalies

    Other Laryngeal Neoplasms

    Tracheal Neoplasms

    Bronchial Tumors

    Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis

    Wheezing in Infants: Bronchiolitis

    Bronchitis

    Plastic Bronchitis

    Emphysema and Overinflation

    α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema

    Other Distal Airway Diseases

    Bronciolitis Obliterans

    Follicular Bronchitis

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    Congenital Disorders of the Lung

    Pulmonary Agenesis and Aplasia

    Pulmonary Hypoplasia

    Congenital Cystic Malformation

    Pulmonary Sequestration

    Bronchogenic Cysts

    Congenital Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia

    Lung Hernia

    Other Congenital Malformations of the Lung

    Pulmonary Edema

    Aspiration Syndromes

    Chronic Recurrent Aspiration

    Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonia

    Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease

    Granulomatous Lung Disease

    Eosinophilic Lung Disease

    Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Pleural Effusion and Empyema

    Dry or Plastic Pleural Effusion

    Serofibrinous or Serosanguineous Pleural Effusion

    Empyema

    Bronchiectasis

    Pulmonary Abscess

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)

    Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood

    Inherited Disorders of Surfactant Metabolism

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage

    Pulmonary Embolus and Infarction

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemoptysis

    Atelectasis

    Pulmonary Tumors

    Pneumothorax

    Pneumomediastinum

    Hydrothorax

    Hemothorax

    Chylothorax

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function

    Pectus Excavatum (Funnel Chest)

    Pectus Carinatum and Sternal Clefts

    Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (Thoracic-Pelvic-Phalangeal Dystrophy)

    Achondroplasia

    Kyphoscoliosis: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congential Scoliosis

    Congenital Rib Anomalies

    Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency

    Neuromuscular Diseases

    Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Other Conditions

    Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    Cardiac Development

    Early Cardiac Morphogenesis

    Cardiac Looping

    Cardiac Septation

    Aortic Arch Development

    Cardiac Differentiation

    Developmental Changes in Cardiac Function

    The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition

    The Fetal Circulation

    The Transitional Circulation

    The Neonatal Circulation

    History and Physical Examination

    Laboratory Evaluation

    Radiologic Assessment

    Electrocardiography

    Hematologic Data

    Echocardiography

    Exercise Testing

    MRI, MRA, CT, and Radionuclide Studies

    Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization

    Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease

    Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

    Atrial Septal Defect

    Ostium Secundum Defect

    Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Atrioventricular Septal Defects (Ostium Primum and Atrioventricular Canal or Endocardial Cushion Defects)

    Ventricular Septal Defect

    Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Aortopulmonary Window Defect

    Coronary Artery Fistula

    Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Obstructive Lesions

    Pulmonary Valve Stenosis with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Infundibular Pulmonary Stenosis and Double-Chamber Right Ventricle

    Pulmonary Stenosis in Combination with an Intracardiac Shunt

    Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis

    Aortic Stenosis

    Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation with Ventricular Septal Defect

    Coarctation with Other Cardiac Anomalies and Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Congenital Mitral Stenosis

    Pulmonary Venous Hypertension

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Regurgitant Lesions

    Pulmonary Valvular Insufficiency and Congenital Absence of the Pulmonary Valve

    Congenital Mitral Insufficiency

    Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Tricuspid Regurgitation

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation of the Critically Ill Neonate with Cyanosis and Respiratory Distress

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions: Lesions Associated with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Tetraology of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia

    Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Tricuspid Atresia

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    Ebstein Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Lesions Associated with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect

    L-Transposition of the Great Arteries (Corrected Transposition)

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Without Pulmonary Stenosis

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Malposition of the Great Arteries (Taussig-Bing Anomaly)

    Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Truncus Arteriosus

    Single Ventricle (Double-Inlet Ventricle, Univentricular Heart)

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Abnormal Positions of the Heart and the Heterotaxy Syndromes (Asplenia, Polysplenia)

    Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations

    Anomalies of the Aortic Arch

    Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries

    Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula

    Ectopia Cordis

    Diverticulum of the Left Ventricle

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Pulmonary Vascular Disease (Eisenmenger Syndrome)

    General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart

    Principles of Antiarrhythmic Therapy

    Sinus Arrhythmias and Extrasystoles

    Supraventricular Tachycardia

    Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

    Long Q-T Syndromes

    Sinus Node Dysfunction

    AV Blcok

    Sudden Death

    Infective Endocarditis

    Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Diseases of the Myocardium

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, and Endocardial Fibroelastosis

    Myocarditis

    Diseases of the Pericardium

    Acute Pericarditis

    Constrictive Pericarditis

    Tumors of the Heart

    Heart Failure

    Cardiogenic Shock

    Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Heart-Lung and Lung Transplantation

    Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)

    Kawasaki Disease

    Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Infantile Calcifications (GACI, IIAC, and ACDC)

    Systemic Hypertension

    Development of the Hematopoietic System

    The Anemias

    Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia )

    Pearson's Syndrome

    Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia

    Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease

    Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)

    Anemia of Renal Disease

    Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias

    Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

    Megaloblastic Anemias

    Folic Acid Deficiency

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency

    Other Rare Megaloblastic Anemias

    Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Other Microcytic Anemias

    Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias

    Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Hereditary Elliptocytosis

    Hereditary Stomatocytosis

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis

    Hemoglobinopathies

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle Cell Trait (Hemoglobin AS)

    Other Hemoglobinopathies

    Unstable Hemoglobin Disorders

    Abnormal Hemoglobins with Increased Oxygen Affinity

    Abnormal Hemoglobins Causing Cyanosis

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia with Deficiency of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase

    Syndromes of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH)

    Thalassemia Syndromes

    Enzymatic Defects

    Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    Other Glycolytic Enzyme Deficiencies

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related Deficiencies

    Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors- Immune Hemolytic Anemias

    Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors

    Polycythemia

    Non-Clonal Polycythemia

    The Inherited Pancytopenias

    The Acquired Pancytopenias

    Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy

    Platelet Transfusions

    Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions

    Plasma Transfusions

    Risks of Blood Transfusions

    Hemostasis

    The Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Hemostasis

    Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)

    Factor VIII or Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia A or B)

    Factor XI Deficiency (Hemophilia C)

    Deficiencies of the Contact Factors (Nonbleeding Disorders)

    Factor VII Deficiency

    Factor X Deficiency

    Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency

    Factor V Deficiency

    Combined Deficiency of Factors V and VIII

    Fibrinogen Deficiency (Factor I)

    Factor XIII Deficiency (Fibrin-Stabilizing Factor or Transglutaminase Deficiency)

    Antiplasmin or Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Deficiency

    von Willebrand Disease

    Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis

    Thrombotic Disorders in Children

    Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Therapy

    Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency

    Liver Disease

    Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders

    Idiopathic (Autoimmune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    Nonimmune Platelet Destruction

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

    Sequestration

    Congenital Thrombocytopenic Syndromes

    Neonatal Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia Due to Acquired Disorders Causing Decreased Production

    Platelet Function Disorders

    Acquired Disorders of Platelet Function

    Congenital Abnormalities of Platelet Function

    Disorders of the Blood Vessels

    Anatomy and Function of the Spleen

    Splenomegaly

    Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy

    Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System

    Abnormalities of Lymphatic vessels

    Lymphadenopathy

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis)

    Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease)

    Castleman Disease

    Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer

    Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

    Principles of Cancer Diagnosis

    Principles of Cancer Treatment

    The Leukemias

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Down Syndrome and Acute Leukemia and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Infant Leukemia

    Lymphoma

    Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Late Effects in Children and Adolescents with Lymphoma

    Brain Tumors in Childhood

    Neuroblastoma

    Neoplasms of the Kidney

    Wilms Tumor

    Other Pediatric Renal Tumors

    Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Neoplasms of Bone

    Malignant Tumors of Bone

    Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Processes of Bone

    Retinoblastoma

    Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms

    Neoplasms of the Liver

    Benign Vascular Tumors

    Hemangiomas

    Lymphangiomas and Cystic Hygromas

    Rare Tumors

    Thyroid Tumors

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

    Adrenal Tumors

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    Other Histiocytoses

    Introduction to Glomerular Diseases

    Anatomy of the Glomerulus

    Glomerular Filtration

    Glomerular Diseases

    Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria

    Isolated Renal Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (Berger Nephropathy)

    Alport Syndrome

    Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Membranous Nephropathy

    Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

    Multisystem Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Chronic Infections

    Glomerulonephritis Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Goodpasture Disease

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Toxic Nephropathy

    Cortical Necrosis

    Coagulopathies and Thrombocytopenia

    Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Pyelonephritis

    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    Papillary Necrosis

    Acute Tubular Necrosis

    Vascular Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Vascular Abnormalities

    Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Idiopathic Hypercalciuria

    Nephrocalcinosis

    Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria

    Congenital Anomalies

    Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney disease

    Trauma

    Renal Tumors

    Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria

    Infectious Causes of Cystitis and Urethritis

    Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Vigorous Exercise

    Clinical evaluation of the Child with Proteinuria

    Conditions Associated with Proteinuria

    Transient Proteinuria

    Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria

    Fixed Proteinuria

    Nephrotic Syndrome

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome

    Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome

    Tubular Function

    Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Proximal (Type II) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Distal (Type I) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Hyperkalemic (Type IV) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Rickets Associated with Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Bartter Syndrome

    Gitelman Syndrome

    Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Renal Failure

    Acute Kidney Injury

    Chronic Kidney Disease

    End-Stage Renal Disease

    Renal Transplantation

    Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys

    Urinary Tract Infections

    Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Obstruction of the Urinary Tract

    Anomalies of the Bladder

    Neuropathic Bladder

    Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction

    Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra

    Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents

    Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract

    Urinary Lithiasis

    Gynecologic History and Physical Examination

    Vulvovaginitis

    Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child

    Breast Concerns

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism

    Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus

    Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies

    Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs

    Female Genital Mutilation

    Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    Hypopituitarism

    Diabetes Insipidus

    Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action

    Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes

    Physiology of Puberty

    Disorders of Pubertal Development

    Central Precocious Puberty

    Precocious Puberty Resulting from Organic Brain Lesions

    Precocious Puberty Following Irradiation of the Brain

    Syndrome of Precocious Puberty and Hypothyroidism

    Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Tumors

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (Precocious Puberty with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and Abnormal Pigmentation)

    Familial Male Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

    Incomplete (Partial) Precocious Development

    Medicational Precocity

    Thyroid Development and Physiology

    Thyroid Hormone Studies

    Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

    Hypothyroidism

    Thyroiditis

    Goiter

    Congenital Goiter

    Intratracheal Goiter

    Endemic Goiter and Cretinism

    Acquired Goiter

    Thyrotoxicosis

    Graves Disease

    Congenital Hyperthyroidism

    Carcinoma of the Thyroid

    Solitary Thyroid Nodule

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome

    Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism

    Hypoparathyroidism

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy)

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Other Causes of Hypercalcemia

    Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

    Histology and Embryology

    Adrenal Steroid Biosynthesis

    Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenal Steroid Hormone Actions

    Adrenal Medulla

    Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Secondary and Tertiary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Adrenal Insufficiency in the Critical Care Setting

    Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Corticosteroids

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 3β-Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Deficiency of P450 Oxidoreductase (Antley-Bixler Syndrome)

    Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency

    Glucocorticoid-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism

    Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses

    Adrenal Carcinoma

    Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Adrenal Calcification

    Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors

    Cushing Syndrome

    Primary Aldosteronism

    Pheochromocytoma

    Development and Function of the Gonads

    Hypofunction of the Testes

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes

    Gynecomastia

    Hypofunction of the Ovaries

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Due to Lesions of the Ovary

    Disorders of Sex Development

    46,XX DSD

    46,XY DSD

    Ovotesticular DSD

    Diabetes Mellitus

    Classification

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Immune Mediated)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Other Specific Types of Diabetes

    Neurologic Evaluation

    Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System

    Neural Tube Defects

    Spina Bifida Occulta (Occult Spinal Dysraphism)

    Meningocele

    Myelomeningocele

    Encephalocele

    Anencephaly

    Disorders of Neuronal Migration

    Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Agenesis of the Cranial Nerves and Dysgenesis of the Posterior Fossa

    Microcephaly

    Hydrocephalus

    Craniosynostosis

    Deformational Plagiocephaly

    Seizures in Childhood

    Febrile Seizures

    Unprovoked Seizures

    "Partial Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    "

    Generalized Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    Mechanisms of Seizures

    Treatment of Seizures and Epilepsy

    Neonatal Seizures

    Status Epilepticus

    Reflex Seizures (Stimulus Precipitated Seizures)

    Nodding Syndrome

    Conditions that Mimic Seizures

    Headaches

    Migraine

    Secondary Headaches

    Tension-Type Headaches

    Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurofibromatosis

    Tuberous Sclerosis

    Sturge-Weber Symdrome (SWS)

    Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Linear Nevus Syndrome

    PHACE Syndrome

    Incontinentia Pigmenti

    Movement Disorders

    Ataxias

    Chorea, Athetosis, Tremor

    Myoclonus

    Dystonia

    Encephalopathies

    Cerebral Palsy

    Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    Other Encephalopathies

    Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood

    Sphingolipidoses

    Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Sialidosis

    Miscellaneous Disorders

    Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    Neuromyelitis Optica

    Transverse Myelitis

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

    Pediatric Stroke

    Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS)

    Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT)

    Spinal Cord Lesions Associated with Vascular Processes

    Hemorrhagic Stroke (HS)

    Differential Diagnosis of Stroke-Like Events

    CNS Vasculitis

    Central Nervous System Infections

    Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period

    Viral Meningoencephalitis

    Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Brain Abscess

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension / Pseudotumor Cerebri

    Spinal Cord Disorders

    Tethered Cord

    Diastematomyelia

    Syringomyelia

    Spinal Cord Tumors

    Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Evaluation and Investigation

    Developmental Disorders of Muscle

    Myotubular Myopathy (Centrionuclear Myopathy)

    Congenital Muscle Fiber-Type Disproportion

    Nemaline Rod Myopathy

    Core Myopathies

    Myofibrillar Myopathies

    Brain Malformations and Muscle Development

    Amyoplasia

    Muscular Dysgenesis (Proteus Syndrome Myopathy)

    Benign Congenital Hypotonia

    Arthrogryposis

    Muscular Dystrophies

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy/Laminopathies

    Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies

    Metabolic Myopathies

    Periodic Paralyses (Potassium-Related) and other Muscle Channelopathies

    Malignant Hyperthermia

    Glycogenoses

    Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Lipid Myopathies

    Vitamin E Deficiency Myopathy

    Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Spinal Muscular Atrophies

    Other Motor Neuron Diseases

    Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, HMSN Type IIa)

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Axonal Type)

    Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy and Déjerine-Sottas Disease (HMSN Type III)

    Roussy-Lévy Syndrome

    Refsum Disease (Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy,Type IV) and Infantile Refsum Disease

    Fabry Disease

    Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    Tomaculous (Hypermyelinating) Neuropathy; Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Leukodystrophies

    Toxic Neuropathies

    Autonomic Neuropathies

    Familial Dysautonomia

    Other Autonomic Neuropathies

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Bell Palsy

    Growth and Development of the Eye

    Examination of the Eye

    Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation

    Disorders of Vision

    Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris

    Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment

    Abnormalities of the Lids

    Disorders of the Lacrimal System

    Disorders of the Conjunctiva

    Abnormalities of the Cornea

    Abnormalities of the Lens

    Disorders of the Uveal Tract

    Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous

    Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve

    Childhood Glaucoma

    Orbital Abnormalities

    Orbital Infections

    Injuries to the Eye

    General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear

    Hearing Loss

    Congenital Malformations of the Ear

    External Otitis (Otitis Externa)

    Otitis Media

    Acute Mastoiditis

    The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth

    Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Morphology of the Skin

    Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient

    Cutaenous Manifestations of Systemic Disease

    Multisystemic Medication Reactions

    Principles of Dermatologic Therapy

    Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate

    Cutaneous Defects

    Ectodermal Dysplasias

    Vascular Disorders

    Cutaneous Nevi

    Hyperpigmented Lesions

    Hypopigmented Lesions

    Vesiculobullous Disorders

    Erythema Multiforme

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Mechanobullous Disorders

    Pemphigus

    Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Linear Immunoglobulin A Dermatosis (Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood)

    Eczematous Disorders

    Contact Dermatitis

    Nummular Eczema

    Pityriasis Alba

    Lichen Simplex Chronicus

    Acute Palmoplantar Eczema (Dyshidrotic Eczema, Dyshidrosis, Pompholyx)

    Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Photosensitivity

    Diseases of the Epidermis

    Psoriasis

    Pityriasis Lichenoides

    Keratosis Pilaris

    Lichen Spinulosus

    Pityriasis Rosea

    Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    Darier Disease (Keratosis Follicularis)

    Lichen Nitidus

    Lichen Striatus

    Lichen Planus

    Porokeratosis

    Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome (Papular Acrodermatitis)

    Acanthosis Nigricans

    Disorders of Keratinization

    Diseases of the Dermis

    Mast Cell Activation Syndrome

    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Diseases of Subcutaneous Tissue

    Panniculitis and Erythema Nodosum

    Lipodystrophy

    Disorders of the Sweat Glands

    Disorders of Hair

    Disorders of the Nails

    Disorders of the Mucous Membranes

    Cutaneous Bacterial Infections

    Impetigo

    Subcutaneous Tissue Infections

    Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritter Disease)

    Ecthyma

    Other Cutaneous Bacterial Infections

    Cutaneous Fungal Infections

    Cutaneous Viral Infections

    Arthropod Bites and Infestations

    Arthropod Bites

    Scabies

    Pediculosis

    Seabather's Eruption

    Acne

    Tumors of the Skin

    Nutritional Dermatoses

    Growth and Development

    Evaluation of the Child

    The Foot and Toes

    Metatarsus Adductus

    Calcaneovalgus Feet

    Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot)

    Congenital Vertical Talus

    Hypermobile Pes Planus (Flexible Flatfeet)

    Tarsal Coalition

    Cavus Feet

    Osteochondroses/Apophysitis

    Puncture Wounds of the Foot

    Toe Deformities

    Painful Foot

    Shoes

    Torsional and Angular Deformities

    Normal Limb Development

    Evaluation

    Torsional Deformities

    Coronal Plane Deformities

    Congenital Angular Deformities of the Tibia and Fibula

    Leg-Length Discrepancy

    The Knee

    Discoid Lateral Meniscus

    Popliteal Cysts (Baker Cysts)

    Osteochondritis Dissecans

    Osgood-Schlatter Disease and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome

    Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Patellofemoral Instability

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    The Hip

    Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    Transient Monoarticular Synovitis (Toxic Synovitis)

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

    Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    The Spine

    Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Congenital Scoliosis

    Neuromuscular Scoliosis, Genetic Syndromes, and Compensatory Scoliosis

    Kyphosis (Round-Back)

    Back Pain in Children

    Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

    Spine Infection

    Intervertebral Disk Herniation/Slipped Vertebral Apophysis

    Tumors

    The Neck

    Torticollis

    Klippel-Feil Syndrome

    Cervical Anomalies and Instabilities

    The Upper Limb

    Arthrogryposis

    Common Fractures

    Unique Characteristics of Pediatric Fractures

    Pediatric Fracture Patterns

    Upper Extremity Fractures

    Fractures of the Lower Extremity

    Operative Treatment

    Complications of Fractures in Children

    Osteomyelitis

    Septic Arthritis

    Epidemiology and Prevention of Injuries

    Management of Musculoskeletal Injury

    Growth Plate Injuries

    Shoulder Injuries

    Elbow Injuries

    Low Back Injuries

    Hip and Pelvis Injuries

    Knee Injuries

    Lower Leg Pain: Shin Splints, Stress Fractures, and Chronic Compartent Syndrome

    Ankle Injuries

    Foot Injuries

    Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion)

    Cervical Spine Injuries

    Heat Injuries

    Female Athletes: Menstrual Problems and the Risk of Osteopenia

    Performance-Enhancing Aids

    Specific Sports and Associated Injuries

    General Considerations

    Disorders Involving Cartilage Matrix Proteins

    Disorders Involving Transmembrane Receptors

    Disorders Involving Ion Transporters

    Disorders Involving Transcription Factors

    Disorders Involving Defective Bone Resorption

    Disorders for Which Defects Are Poorly Understood or Unknown

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Marfan Syndrome

    Bone Structure, Growth, and Hormonal Regulation

    Hypophosphatasia

    Hyperphosphatasia

    Osteoporosis

    Evaluation of the Child for Rehabilitative Services

    Rehabilitation for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic Crisis Management

    Spasticity

    Birth Brachial Plexus Palsy

    Meningomyelocele (Spina Bifida)

    Ambulation Assistance

    Health and Wellness for Children with Disabilities

    Home Mechanical Ventilation and Technology Dependence

    Overview of Environmental Health and Children

    Biologic Effects of Radiation on Children

    Chemical Pollutants

    Tobacco

    Heavy Metal Intoxication

    Lead Poisoning

    Nonbacterial Food Poisoning

    Mushroom Poisoning

    Solanine Poisoning

    Seafood Poisoning

    Melamine Poisoning

    Biologic and Chemical Terrorism

    Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Animal and Human Bites

    Rat Bite Fever

    Monkeypox

    Envenomations

    Laboratory Testing in Infants and Children

    Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests

    ChapTitle

    Overview of Pediatrics

    Child Health Disparities

    Racism

    Global Health

    Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children

    Safety in Healthcare for Children

    Ethics in Pediatric Care

    Pediatric Palliative Care

    Domestic and International Adoption

    Foster and Kinship Care

    Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child

    Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care

    Maximizing Children’s Health: Screening, Anticipatory Guidance, and Counseling

    Injury Control

    Impact of Violence on Children

    Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Violence

    Media Violence

    Effects of War on Children

    Child Trafficking

    Abused and Neglected Children

    Sexual Abuse

    Medical Child Abuse (Factitious Disorder by Proxy, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy)

    Strategies for Health Behavior Change

    Developmental and Behavioral Theories

    Positive Parenting and Support

    Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development

    The Newborn

    The First Year

    Infant Crying and Colic

    The Second Year

    The Preschool Years

    Middle Childhood

    Adolescence

    Assessment of Growth

    Developmental and Behavioral Screening and Surveillance

    Childcare

    Loss, Separation, and Bereavement

    Sleep Medicine

    Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing

    Psychopharmacology

    Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Rumination and Pica

    Rumination Disorder

    Pica

    Motor Disorders and Habits

    Tic Disorders

    Stereotypic Movement Disorders

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mood Disorders

    Major and Other Depressive Disorders

    Bipolar and Related Disorders

    Suicide and Attempted Suicide

    Eating Disorders

    Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders

    Tantrums and Breath-holding spells

    Lying, Stealing and Truancy

    Aggression

    Self-injurious behavior

    Childhood Psychoses

    Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders

    Psychosis Associated with Epilepsy

    Catatonia in Children and Adolescents

    Acute Phobic Hallucinations of Childhood

    Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Dyslexia

    Math and Writing Disabilities

    Math Disabilities

    Writing Disabilities

    Language Development and Communication Disorders

    Child-Onset Fluency Disorder

    Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability

    Intellectual Disability with Regression

    Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Nutritional Requirements

    Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    Nutrition, Food Security, and Health

    Refeeding Syndrome

    Failure to Thrive

    Overweight and Obesity

    Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD)

    Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess

    Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

    Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

    Niacin (Vitamin B3)

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

    Biotin

    Folate

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess

    Vitamin E Deficiency

    Vitamin K Deficiency

    Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies

    Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Composition of Body Fluids

    Regulation of Osmolality and Volume

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Magnesium

    Phosphorus

    Acid-Base Balance

    Maintenance and Replacement Therapy

    Deficit Therapy

    Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders

    Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics

    Principles of Drug Therapy

    Anesthesia and Perioperative Care

    Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Sedation and Procedural Pain

    Pediatric Pain Management

    Poisoning

    Complementary Therapies, and Integrative Medicine

    Emergency Medical Services for Children

    Interfacility Transport of the Seriously Ill or Injured Pediatric Patient

    Outcomes and Risk-Adjustment

    Principles Applicable to the Developing World

    Triage of the Acutely Ill Child

    Resuscitation

    Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma

    Spinal Cord Injuries in Children

    Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations

    Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization

    Brain Death

    Syncope

    POTS

    Shock

    Respiratory Distress and Failure

    Mechanical Ventilation

    Long-term Mechanical Ventilation

    Altitude-associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)

    Drowning and Submersion Injury

    Burn injuries

    Cold Injuries

    Integration of Genetics into Pediatric Practice

    Genetic Counseling

    Management and Treatment of Genetic Disorders

    The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine

    The Human Genome

    Patterns of Genetic Transmission

    Cytogenetics

    Methods of Chromosome Analysis

    Down Syndrome and Other Abnormalities of Chromosome Number

    Abnormalities of Chromosome Structure

    Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy

    Fragile Chromosome Sites

    Mosaicism

    Chromosome Instability Syndromes

    Uniparental Disomy and Imprinting

    Genetics of Common Disorders

    Major Genetic Approaches to the Study of Common Pediatric Disorders

    Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease

    Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases

    An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids

    Phenylalanine

    Tyrosine

    Methionine

    Cysteine/Cystine

    Tryptophan

    Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, and Related Organic Acidemias

    Glycine

    Serine

    Proline

    Glutamic Acid

    Genetic Disorders of Neurotransmitters

    Urea Cycle and Hyperammonemia (Arginine, Citrulline, Ornithine)

    Histidine

    Lysine

    N-Acetylaspartic Acid (Canavan Disease)

    Defects in Metabolism of Lipids

    Disorders of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation

    Disorders of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids

    Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport

    Lipidoses (Lysosomal Storage Disorders)

    Mucolipidoses

    Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates

    Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Defects in Galactose Metabolism

    Defects in Fructose Metabolism

    Defects in Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism Associated with Lactic Acidosis

    Defects in Pentose Metabolism

    Disorders of Glycoprotein Degradation

    Congenital Disorders of Glycosolation

    Approach to Mitochondrial Disorders

    Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome

    The Porphyrias

    Hypoglycemia

    Overview of Mortality and Morbidity

    The Newborn Infant

    History in Neonatal Pediatrics

    Physical Examination of the Newborn Infant

    Routine Newborn Care

    Circumcision

    Parent-Infant Bonding

    High-Risk Pregnancies

    The Fetus

    Fetal Growth and Maturity

    Fetal Distress

    Maternal Disease and the Fetus

    Maternal Medication and Toxin Exposure and the Fetus

    Teratogens

    Radiation

    Intrauterine Diagnosis of Fetal Disease

    Treatment and Prevention of Fetal Disease

    Fetal Intervention and Surgery

    The High-Risk Infant

    Multiple Gestation Pregnancies

    Extreme and Very Preterm Infants

    Moderate and Late Pre-Term Infants

    Term and Post-Term Infants

    Follow-up of High-Risk Infants after Discharge

    Infant Transport

    Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period

    Hyperthermia

    Neontal Cold Injury

    Edema

    Hypocalcemia (Tetany)

    Hypermanganazemia

    Nervous System Disorders

    The Cranium

    Traumatic, Epidural, Subdural, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Intracranial-Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia

    Hypoxia-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Spine and Spinal Cord

    Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies

    Respiratory Tract Disorders

    Transition to Pulmonary Respiration

    Apnea

    Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)

    BPD

    PDA

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Aspiration of Foreign Material (Fetal Aspiration Syndrome, Aspiration Pneumonia)

    Meconium Aspiration

    Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (Persistent Fetal Circulation)

    Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Foramen of Morgagni Hernia

    Paraesophageal Hernia

    Eventration

    Extrapulmonary Air Leaks (Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema, Pneumopericardium)

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage

    Digestive System Disorders

    Meconium Ileus, Peritonitis, and Intestinal Obstruction

    Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

    Kernicterus

    Blood Disorders

    Anemia in the Newborn Infant

    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)

    Plethora in the Newborn Infant (Polycythemia)

    Hemorrhage in the Newborn Infant

    The Umbilicus

    Abstinence Syndromes

    Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal)

    Maternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Neonatal Behavioral Syndromes

    Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    The Endocrine System

    Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    Dysmorphology

    Epidemiology of Infections

    Healthcare−Associated Infections (HAI)

    Congenital Infections

    Adolescent Physical and Social Development

    Gender and Sexual Identity

    Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Adolescents

    Transgender Care

    The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems

    Delivery of Health Care to Adolescents

    Legal Issues

    Screening Procedures

    Transitioning to Adult Care

    Violent Behavior

    Substance Abuse

    Alcohol

    Tobacco and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

    Marijuana

    Inhalants

    Hallucinogens

    Cocaine

    Amphetamines

    Stimulant Abuse and Diversion

    Opiates

    Bath salts and other drugs of abuse

    The Breast

    Menstrual Problems

    Amenorrhea

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Dysmenorrhea

    Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Contraception

    Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC)

    Other Progestin-only Methods

    Combined Hormonal Contraceptives

    Emergency Contraception (EC)

    Dual Protection

    Other Barrier Methods

    Other Methods

    Adolescent Pregnancy

    Adolescent Sexual Assault

    Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Chronic Overlapping Pain Syndromes

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency

    Lymphocyte Development and Function

    Primary Defects of Antibody Production

    Treatment of B-Cell Defects

    Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity

    Immune Deficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Combined Immunodeficiency

    Defects of Innate Immunity

    Treatment of Cellular or Combined Immunodeficiency

    Immune Dysregulation with Autoimmunity or Lymphoproliferation

    Neutrophils

    Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells

    Eosinophils

    Disorders of Phagocyte Function

    Leukopenia

    Leukocytosis

    The Complement System

    Disorders of the Complement System

    Evaluation of the Complement System

    Genetic Deficiencies of Complement Components

    Deficiencies of Plasma, Membrane, or Serosal Complement Control Proteins

    Secondary Disorders of Complement

    Treatment of Complement Disorders

    Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors

    Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Veno-occlusive Disease

    Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease

    Diagnosis of Allergic Disease

    Allergic Rhinitis

    Childhood Asthma

    Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)

    Insect Allergy

    Ocular Allergies

    Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema

    Anaphylaxis

    Serum Sickness

    Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods

    Adverse Reactions to Drugs

    Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease

    Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides

    Reactive and Post-Infectious Arthritis

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Neonatal Lupus

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon

    Behçet Disease

    Sjögren Syndrome

    The Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Amyloidosis

    Sarcoidosis

    Kawasaki Disease

    Vasculitis Syndromes

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

    Takayasu Arteritis

    Polyarteritis Nodosa and Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa

    ANCA-associated vasculitis

    Other Vasculitic Syndromes

    Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes

    Growing Pains

    Small Fiber Polyneuropathy

    Fibromyalgia

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Erythromelalgia

    Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis

    Diagnostic Microbiology

    The Microbiome and Pediatric Health

    Immunization Practices

    International Immunization Practices

    Infection Prevention and Control

    Childcare and Communicable Diseases

    Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally

    Fever

    Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate (0-2 mos)

    Fever in the Older Child

    Fever of Unknown Origin

    Infections in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infections Occurring with Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Infections Occuring with Acquired Immunodeficiencies

    Prevention of Infection in Immunocompromised Persons

    Infection Associated with Medical Devices

    Principles of Antibacterial Therapy

    Staphylococcus

    Staphylococcus aureus

    Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)

    Group A Streptococcus

    Rheumatic Fever

    Group B Streptococcus

    Non-Group A or B Streptococci

    Enterococcus

    Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

    Listeria monocytogenes

    Actinomyces

    Nocardia

    Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)

    Kingella kingae

    Haemophilus influenzae

    Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

    Moraxella catarrhalis

    Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)

    Salmonella

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis

    Enteric Fever (Typhoid Fever)

    Shigella

    Escherichia coli

    Cholera

    Campylobacter

    Yersinia

    Yersinia enterocolitica

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Aeromonas and Plesiomonas

    Aeromonas

    Plesiomonas shigelloides

    Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas

    Pseudomonas

    Burkholderia Cepacia Complex

    Stenotrophomonas

    Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

    Brucella

    Legionella

    Bartonella

    Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae)

    Bartonellosis (Bartonella bacilliformis)

    Trench Fever (Bartonella quintana)

    Bacillary Angiomatosis and Bacillary Peliosis Hepatis (Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana)

    Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

    Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)

    Clostridium difficile Infection

    Other Anaerobic Infections

    Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy

    Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

    Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections

    Yaws (Treponema pertenue)

    Bejel (Endemic Syphilis: Treponema pallidum endemicum)

    Pinta (Treponema carateum)

    Leptospira

    Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)

    Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum)

    Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae

    Chlamydia trachomatis

    Trachoma

    Genital Tract Infections

    Conjunctivitis and Pneumonia in Newborns

    Lymphogranuloma Venereum

    Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

    Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)

    Mediterranean Spotted Fever or Boutonneuse Fever (Rickettsia conorii)

    Rickettsialpox (Rickettsia akari)

    Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    Typhus Group Rickettsioses

    Murine (endemic or flea-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia typhi)

    Epidemic (louse-borne) Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii)

    Ehrlichioses and Anaplasmosis

    Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

    Principles of Antifungal Therapy

    Candida

    Neonatal Infections

    Infections in Immunocompetent Children and Adolescents

    Infections in Immunocompromised Children and Adolescents

    Cryptococcus neoformans

    Malassezia

    Aspergillus

    Allergic Disease (Hypersensitivity Syndromes)

    Saprophytic (Noninvasive) Syndromes

    Invasive Disease

    Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)

    Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)

    Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis)

    Pneumocystis Jirovecii

    Principles of Antiviral Therapy

    Measles

    Rubella

    Mumps

    Polioviruses

    Nonpolio Enteroviruses

    Parvoviruses

    Herpes Simplex Virus

    Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections

    Epstein-Barr Virus

    Cytomegalovirus

    Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)

    Human Herpesvirus 8

    Influenza Viruses

    Parainfluenza Viruses

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Human Metapneumovirus

    Adenoviruses

    Rhinoviruses

    Coronaviruses

    Rotaviruses, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus

    Human Papillomaviruses

    Arboviral Infections

    Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Western Equine Encephalitis

    St. Louis Encephalitis

    West Nile Encephalitis

    Powassan Encephalitis

    LaCrosse and California Encephalitis

    Colorado Tick Fever

    Chikungunya Fever

    Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

    Japanese Encephalitis

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis

    Zika Virus

    Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Yellow Fever

    Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Rabies

    Polyomaviruses

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

    Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)

    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

    Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy

    Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    Amebiasis

    Giardiasis and Balantidiasis

    Giardia lamblia

    Balantidiasis

    Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia

    Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)

    Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)

    African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei complex)

    American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)

    Malaria (Plasmodium)

    Babesiosis (Babesia)

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)

    Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)

    Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichuria)

    Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)

    Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)

    Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)

    Other Tissue Nematodes

    Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)

    Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)

    Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)

    Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)

    Adult Tapeworm Infections

    Cysticercosis

    Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)

    Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena

    Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders

    Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth

    Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions

    Malocclusion

    Cleft Lip and Palate

    Syndromes with Oral Manifestations

    Dental Caries

    Periodontal Diseases

    Dental Trauma

    Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues

    Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws

    Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus

    Common Clinical Manifestations and Diagnostic Aids

    Congenital Anomalies

    Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Laryngotracheoesophageal Clefts

    Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus

    Dysmotility

    Hiatal Hernia

    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Complications of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non-GERD Esophagitis

    Esophageal Perforation

    Esophageal Varices

    Ingestions

    Foreign Bodies in the Esophagus

    Caustic Ingestions

    Normal Development, Structure, and Function

    Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach

    Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

    Congenital Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Gastric Duplication

    Gastric Volvulus

    Hypertrophic Gastropathy

    Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation

    Duodenal Obstruction

    Jejunal and Ileal Atresia and Obstruction

    Malrotation

    Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Intestinal Duplication

    Meckel Diverticulum and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct

    Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease

    Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy

    Encopresis and Functional Constipation

    Congenital Aganglionic Megacolon (Hirschsprung Disease)

    Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (Wilkie Syndrome, Cast Syndrome, Arteriomesenteric Duodenal Compression Syndrome)

    Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Ileus

    Adhesions

    Intussusception

    Closed-Loop Obstructions

    Foreign Bodies and Bezoars

    Foreign Bodies in the Stomach and Intestine

    Bezoars

    Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children

    Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Crohn Disease (Regional Enteritis, Regional lleitis, Granulomatous Colitis)

    Very Early Onset IBD

    Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Disorders of Malabsorption

    Evaluation of Children with Suspected Intestinal Malabsorption

    Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)

    Other Malabsorptive Syndromes

    Intestinal Infections and Infestations Associated with Malabsorption

    Immunodeficiency Disorders

    Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease

    Short Bowel Syndrome

    Chronic Malnutrition

    Enzyme Deficiencies

    Liver and Biliary Disorders Causing Malabsorption

    Rare Inborn Defects Causing Malabsorption

    Malabsorption in Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Malabsorption in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure

    Acute Gastroenteritis in Children

    Traveler's Diarrhea

    Chronic Diarrhea

    Diarrhea from Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Functional Abdominal pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal pain)

    Cyclic vomiting and abdominal migraine

    Acute Appendicitis

    Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum

    Anorectal Malformations

    Anal Fissure

    Perianal Abscess and Fistula

    Hemorrhoids

    Rectal Mucosal Prolapse

    Pilonidal Sinus and Abscess

    Tumors of the Digestive Tract

    Inguinal Hernias

    Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology

    Anatomic Abnormalities

    Physiology

    Pancreatic Function Tests

    Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas

    Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Pancreatitis

    Acute Pancreatitis

    Chronic Pancreatitis

    Pseudocyst of the Pancreas

    Pancreatic Tumors

    Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System

    Manifestations of Liver Disease

    Evaluation of Patients with Possible Liver Dysfunction

    Cholestasis

    Neonatal Cholestasis

    Cholestasis in the Older Child

    Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Inherited Deficient Conjugation of Bilirubin (Familial Nonhemolytic Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia)

    Wilson Disease

    Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    Neonatal Iron Storage Disease

    Miscellaneous Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

    Viral Hepatitis

    Liver Abscess

    Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Mitochondrial Hepatopathies

    Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury

    Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver

    Diseases of the Gallbladder

    Portal Hypertension and Varices

    Liver Transplantation

    Malformations

    Ascites

    Chylous Ascites

    Peritonitis

    Acute Primary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Peritonitis

    Acute Secondary Localized Peritonitis (Peritoneal Abscess)

    Epigastric Hernia

    Incisional Hernia

    Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease

    Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse (SUPC)

    BRUE / ALTE

    Congenital Disorders of the Nose

    Acquired Disorders of the Nose

    Foreign Body

    Epistaxis

    Nasal Polyps

    The Common Cold

    Sinusitis

    Acute Pharyngitis

    Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess

    Tonsils and Adenoids

    Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)

    Infectious Upper Airway Obstruction

    Bacterial Tracheitis

    Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Laryngomalacia

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Congenital Laryngeal Webs and Atresia

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Laryngoceles and Saccular Cysts

    Posterior Laryngeal Cleft and Laryngotracheoesophageal Cleft

    Vascular and Cardiac Anomalies

    Tracheal Stenoses, Webs, and Atresia

    Foregut Cysts

    Tracheomalacia and Bronchomalacia

    Foreign Bodies of the Airway

    Laryngeal Foreign Bodies

    Tracheal Foreign Bodies

    Bronchial Foreign Bodies

    Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis

    Congenital Subglottic Stenosis

    Acquired Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia

    Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi

    Vocal Nodules

    Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

    Congenital Subglottic Hemangioma

    Vascular Anomalies

    Other Laryngeal Neoplasms

    Tracheal Neoplasms

    Bronchial Tumors

    Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis

    Wheezing in Infants: Bronchiolitis

    Bronchitis

    Plastic Bronchitis

    Emphysema and Overinflation

    α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema

    Other Distal Airway Diseases

    Bronciolitis Obliterans

    Follicular Bronchitis

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    Congenital Disorders of the Lung

    Pulmonary Agenesis and Aplasia

    Pulmonary Hypoplasia

    Congenital Cystic Malformation

    Pulmonary Sequestration

    Bronchogenic Cysts

    Congenital Pulmonary Lymphangiectasia

    Lung Hernia

    Other Congenital Malformations of the Lung

    Pulmonary Edema

    Aspiration Syndromes

    Chronic Recurrent Aspiration

    Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease

    Hypersensitivity Pneumonia

    Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease

    Granulomatous Lung Disease

    Eosinophilic Lung Disease

    Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Pleural Effusion and Empyema

    Dry or Plastic Pleural Effusion

    Serofibrinous or Serosanguineous Pleural Effusion

    Empyema

    Bronchiectasis

    Pulmonary Abscess

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)

    Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood

    Inherited Disorders of Surfactant Metabolism

    Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage

    Pulmonary Embolus and Infarction

    Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemoptysis

    Atelectasis

    Pulmonary Tumors

    Pneumothorax

    Pneumomediastinum

    Hydrothorax

    Hemothorax

    Chylothorax

    Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function

    Pectus Excavatum (Funnel Chest)

    Pectus Carinatum and Sternal Clefts

    Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (Thoracic-Pelvic-Phalangeal Dystrophy)

    Achondroplasia

    Kyphoscoliosis: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congential Scoliosis

    Congenital Rib Anomalies

    Chronic Respiratory Insufficiency

    Neuromuscular Diseases

    Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Other Conditions

    Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    Cardiac Development

    Early Cardiac Morphogenesis

    Cardiac Looping

    Cardiac Septation

    Aortic Arch Development

    Cardiac Differentiation

    Developmental Changes in Cardiac Function

    The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition

    The Fetal Circulation

    The Transitional Circulation

    The Neonatal Circulation

    History and Physical Examination

    Laboratory Evaluation

    Radiologic Assessment

    Electrocardiography

    Hematologic Data

    Echocardiography

    Exercise Testing

    MRI, MRA, CT, and Radionuclide Studies

    Diagnostic and Interventional Cardiac Catheterization

    Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease

    Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Left-to-Right Shunt Lesions

    Atrial Septal Defect

    Ostium Secundum Defect

    Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Atrioventricular Septal Defects (Ostium Primum and Atrioventricular Canal or Endocardial Cushion Defects)

    Ventricular Septal Defect

    Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect with Aortic Insufficiency

    Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Aortopulmonary Window Defect

    Coronary Artery Fistula

    Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: The Obstructive Lesions

    Pulmonary Valve Stenosis with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Infundibular Pulmonary Stenosis and Double-Chamber Right Ventricle

    Pulmonary Stenosis in Combination with an Intracardiac Shunt

    Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis

    Aortic Stenosis

    Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation with Ventricular Septal Defect

    Coarctation with Other Cardiac Anomalies and Interrupted Aortic Arch

    Congenital Mitral Stenosis

    Pulmonary Venous Hypertension

    Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Regurgitant Lesions

    Pulmonary Valvular Insufficiency and Congenital Absence of the Pulmonary Valve

    Congenital Mitral Insufficiency

    Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Tricuspid Regurgitation

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Evaluation of the Critically Ill Neonate with Cyanosis and Respiratory Distress

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions: Lesions Associated with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    Tetralogy of Fallot

    Tetraology of Fallot with Pulmonary Atresia

    Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Tricuspid Atresia

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Stenosis

    Ebstein Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve

    Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease: Lesions Associated with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries

    D-Transposition of the Great Arteries with Intact Ventricular Septum

    Transposition of the Great Arteries with Ventricular Septal Defect

    L-Transposition of the Great Arteries (Corrected Transposition)

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle Without Pulmonary Stenosis

    Double-Outlet Right Ventricle with Malposition of the Great Arteries (Taussig-Bing Anomaly)

    Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

    Truncus Arteriosus

    Single Ventricle (Double-Inlet Ventricle, Univentricular Heart)

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Abnormal Positions of the Heart and the Heterotaxy Syndromes (Asplenia, Polysplenia)

    Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations

    Anomalies of the Aortic Arch

    Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Arteries

    Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula

    Ectopia Cordis

    Diverticulum of the Left Ventricle

    Pulmonary Hypertension

    Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    Pulmonary Vascular Disease (Eisenmenger Syndrome)

    General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

    Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart

    Principles of Antiarrhythmic Therapy

    Sinus Arrhythmias and Extrasystoles

    Supraventricular Tachycardia

    Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

    Long Q-T Syndromes

    Sinus Node Dysfunction

    AV Blcok

    Sudden Death

    Infective Endocarditis

    Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Diseases of the Myocardium

    Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Left Ventricular Noncompaction, Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy, and Endocardial Fibroelastosis

    Myocarditis

    Diseases of the Pericardium

    Acute Pericarditis

    Constrictive Pericarditis

    Tumors of the Heart

    Heart Failure

    Cardiogenic Shock

    Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation

    Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Heart-Lung and Lung Transplantation

    Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)

    Kawasaki Disease

    Arteriovenous Fistulas

    Infantile Calcifications (GACI, IIAC, and ACDC)

    Systemic Hypertension

    Development of the Hematopoietic System

    The Anemias

    Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia )

    Pearson's Syndrome

    Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia

    Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease

    Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)

    Anemia of Renal Disease

    Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias

    Physiologic Anemia of Infancy

    Megaloblastic Anemias

    Folic Acid Deficiency

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency

    Other Rare Megaloblastic Anemias

    Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Other Microcytic Anemias

    Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias

    Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Hereditary Elliptocytosis

    Hereditary Stomatocytosis

    Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis

    Hemoglobinopathies

    Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle Cell Trait (Hemoglobin AS)

    Other Hemoglobinopathies

    Unstable Hemoglobin Disorders

    Abnormal Hemoglobins with Increased Oxygen Affinity

    Abnormal Hemoglobins Causing Cyanosis

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia

    Hereditary Methemoglobinemia with Deficiency of NADH Cytochrome B5 Reductase

    Syndromes of Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH)

    Thalassemia Syndromes

    Enzymatic Defects

    Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    Other Glycolytic Enzyme Deficiencies

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related Deficiencies

    Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors- Immune Hemolytic Anemias

    Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors

    Polycythemia

    Non-Clonal Polycythemia

    The Inherited Pancytopenias

    The Acquired Pancytopenias

    Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy

    Platelet Transfusions

    Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions

    Plasma Transfusions

    Risks of Blood Transfusions

    Hemostasis

    The Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Hemostasis

    Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)

    Factor VIII or Factor IX Deficiency (Hemophilia A or B)

    Factor XI Deficiency (Hemophilia C)

    Deficiencies of the Contact Factors (Nonbleeding Disorders)

    Factor VII Deficiency

    Factor X Deficiency

    Prothrombin (Factor II) Deficiency

    Factor V Deficiency

    Combined Deficiency of Factors V and VIII

    Fibrinogen Deficiency (Factor I)

    Factor XIII Deficiency (Fibrin-Stabilizing Factor or Transglutaminase Deficiency)

    Antiplasmin or Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Deficiency

    von Willebrand Disease

    Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis

    Thrombotic Disorders in Children

    Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Therapy

    Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency

    Liver Disease

    Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders

    Idiopathic (Autoimmune) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    Nonimmune Platelet Destruction

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

    Sequestration

    Congenital Thrombocytopenic Syndromes

    Neonatal Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia Due to Acquired Disorders Causing Decreased Production

    Platelet Function Disorders

    Acquired Disorders of Platelet Function

    Congenital Abnormalities of Platelet Function

    Disorders of the Blood Vessels

    Anatomy and Function of the Spleen

    Splenomegaly

    Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy

    Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System

    Abnormalities of Lymphatic vessels

    Lymphadenopathy

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis)

    Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman Disease)

    Castleman Disease

    Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer

    Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

    Principles of Cancer Diagnosis

    Principles of Cancer Treatment

    The Leukemias

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Down Syndrome and Acute Leukemia and Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Infant Leukemia

    Lymphoma

    Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Late Effects in Children and Adolescents with Lymphoma

    Brain Tumors in Childhood

    Neuroblastoma

    Neoplasms of the Kidney

    Wilms Tumor

    Other Pediatric Renal Tumors

    Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Neoplasms of Bone

    Malignant Tumors of Bone

    Benign Tumors and Tumor-like Processes of Bone

    Retinoblastoma

    Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms

    Neoplasms of the Liver

    Benign Vascular Tumors

    Hemangiomas

    Lymphangiomas and Cystic Hygromas

    Rare Tumors

    Thyroid Tumors

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectum

    Adrenal Tumors

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

    Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    Other Histiocytoses

    Introduction to Glomerular Diseases

    Anatomy of the Glomerulus

    Glomerular Filtration

    Glomerular Diseases

    Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria

    Isolated Renal Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (Berger Nephropathy)

    Alport Syndrome

    Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Membranous Nephropathy

    Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis

    Multisystem Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Chronic Infections

    Glomerulonephritis Associated With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Goodpasture Disease

    Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Toxic Nephropathy

    Cortical Necrosis

    Coagulopathies and Thrombocytopenia

    Tubulointerstitial Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Pyelonephritis

    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    Papillary Necrosis

    Acute Tubular Necrosis

    Vascular Disease Associated with Hematuria

    Vascular Abnormalities

    Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Sickle Cell Nephropathy

    Idiopathic Hypercalciuria

    Nephrocalcinosis

    Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria

    Congenital Anomalies

    Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney disease

    Trauma

    Renal Tumors

    Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria

    Infectious Causes of Cystitis and Urethritis

    Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    Vigorous Exercise

    Clinical evaluation of the Child with Proteinuria

    Conditions Associated with Proteinuria

    Transient Proteinuria

    Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria

    Fixed Proteinuria

    Nephrotic Syndrome

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

    Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome

    Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome

    Tubular Function

    Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Proximal (Type II) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Distal (Type I) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Hyperkalemic (Type IV) Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Rickets Associated with Renal Tubular Acidosis

    Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Bartter Syndrome

    Gitelman Syndrome

    Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities

    Renal Failure

    Acute Kidney Injury

    Chronic Kidney Disease

    End-Stage Renal Disease

    Renal Transplantation

    Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys

    Urinary Tract Infections

    Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Obstruction of the Urinary Tract

    Anomalies of the Bladder

    Neuropathic Bladder

    Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction

    Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra

    Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents

    Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract

    Urinary Lithiasis

    Gynecologic History and Physical Examination

    Vulvovaginitis

    Vaginal Bleeding in the Prepubertal Child

    Breast Concerns

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism

    Neoplasms and Adolescent Prevention Methods for Human Papillomavirus

    Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies

    Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs

    Female Genital Mutilation

    Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    Hypopituitarism

    Diabetes Insipidus

    Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action

    Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes

    Physiology of Puberty

    Disorders of Pubertal Development

    Central Precocious Puberty

    Precocious Puberty Resulting from Organic Brain Lesions

    Precocious Puberty Following Irradiation of the Brain

    Syndrome of Precocious Puberty and Hypothyroidism

    Chorionic Gonadotropin-Secreting Tumors

    McCune-Albright Syndrome (Precocious Puberty with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and Abnormal Pigmentation)

    Familial Male Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

    Incomplete (Partial) Precocious Development

    Medicational Precocity

    Thyroid Development and Physiology

    Thyroid Hormone Studies

    Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin

    Hypothyroidism

    Thyroiditis

    Goiter

    Congenital Goiter

    Intratracheal Goiter

    Endemic Goiter and Cretinism

    Acquired Goiter

    Thyrotoxicosis

    Graves Disease

    Congenital Hyperthyroidism

    Carcinoma of the Thyroid

    Solitary Thyroid Nodule

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome

    Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism

    Hypoparathyroidism

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy)

    Hyperparathyroidism

    Other Causes of Hypercalcemia

    Physiology of the Adrenal Gland

    Histology and Embryology

    Adrenal Steroid Biosynthesis

    Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenal Steroid Hormone Actions

    Adrenal Medulla

    Adrenocortical Insufficiency

    Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Secondary and Tertiary Adrenal Insufficiency

    Adrenal Insufficiency in the Critical Care Setting

    Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Corticosteroids

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 3β-Hydroxysteriod Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Deficiency of P450 Oxidoreductase (Antley-Bixler Syndrome)

    Aldosterone Synthase Deficiency

    Glucocorticoid-Suppressible Hyperaldosteronism

    Adrenocortical Tumors and Masses

    Adrenal Carcinoma

    Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Adrenal Calcification

    Virilizing and Feminizing Adrenal Tumors

    Cushing Syndrome

    Primary Aldosteronism

    Pheochromocytoma

    Development and Function of the Gonads

    Hypofunction of the Testes

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Male (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes

    Gynecomastia

    Hypofunction of the Ovaries

    Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Primary Hypogonadism)

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in the Female (Secondary Hypogonadism)

    Pseudoprecocity Due to Lesions of the Ovary

    Disorders of Sex Development

    46,XX DSD

    46,XY DSD

    Ovotesticular DSD

    Diabetes Mellitus

    Classification

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Immune Mediated)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Other Specific Types of Diabetes

    Neurologic Evaluation

    Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System

    Neural Tube Defects

    Spina Bifida Occulta (Occult Spinal Dysraphism)

    Meningocele

    Myelomeningocele

    Encephalocele

    Anencephaly

    Disorders of Neuronal Migration

    Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    Agenesis of the Cranial Nerves and Dysgenesis of the Posterior Fossa

    Microcephaly

    Hydrocephalus

    Craniosynostosis

    Deformational Plagiocephaly

    Seizures in Childhood

    Febrile Seizures

    Unprovoked Seizures

    "Partial Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    "

    Generalized Seizures and Related Epilepsy Syndromes

    Mechanisms of Seizures

    Treatment of Seizures and Epilepsy

    Neonatal Seizures

    Status Epilepticus

    Reflex Seizures (Stimulus Precipitated Seizures)

    Nodding Syndrome

    Conditions that Mimic Seizures

    Headaches

    Migraine

    Secondary Headaches

    Tension-Type Headaches

    Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurofibromatosis

    Tuberous Sclerosis

    Sturge-Weber Symdrome (SWS)

    Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Linear Nevus Syndrome

    PHACE Syndrome

    Incontinentia Pigmenti

    Movement Disorders

    Ataxias

    Chorea, Athetosis, Tremor

    Myoclonus

    Dystonia

    Encephalopathies

    Cerebral Palsy

    Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies

    Other Encephalopathies

    Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood

    Sphingolipidoses

    Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses

    Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Sialidosis

    Miscellaneous Disorders

    Demyelinating Disorders of the CNS

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

    Neuromyelitis Optica

    Transverse Myelitis

    Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

    Pediatric Stroke

    Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS)

    Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis (CSVT)

    Spinal Cord Lesions Associated with Vascular Processes

    Hemorrhagic Stroke (HS)

    Differential Diagnosis of Stroke-Like Events

    CNS Vasculitis

    Central Nervous System Infections

    Acute Bacterial Meningitis Beyond the Neonatal Period

    Viral Meningoencephalitis

    Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Brain Abscess

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension / Pseudotumor Cerebri

    Spinal Cord Disorders

    Tethered Cord

    Diastematomyelia

    Syringomyelia

    Spinal Cord Tumors

    Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations

    Evaluation and Investigation

    Developmental Disorders of Muscle

    Myotubular Myopathy (Centrionuclear Myopathy)

    Congenital Muscle Fiber-Type Disproportion

    Nemaline Rod Myopathy

    Core Myopathies

    Myofibrillar Myopathies

    Brain Malformations and Muscle Development

    Amyoplasia

    Muscular Dysgenesis (Proteus Syndrome Myopathy)

    Benign Congenital Hypotonia

    Arthrogryposis

    Muscular Dystrophies

    Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy/Laminopathies

    Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Congenital Muscular Dystrophies

    Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies

    Metabolic Myopathies

    Periodic Paralyses (Potassium-Related) and other Muscle Channelopathies

    Malignant Hyperthermia

    Glycogenoses

    Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Lipid Myopathies

    Vitamin E Deficiency Myopathy

    Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Spinal Muscular Atrophies

    Other Motor Neuron Diseases

    Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, HMSN Type IIa)

    Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (Axonal Type)

    Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy and Déjerine-Sottas Disease (HMSN Type III)

    Roussy-Lévy Syndrome

    Refsum Disease (Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy,Type IV) and Infantile Refsum Disease

    Fabry Disease

    Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    Tomaculous (Hypermyelinating) Neuropathy; Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Leukodystrophies

    Toxic Neuropathies

    Autonomic Neuropathies

    Familial Dysautonomia

    Other Autonomic Neuropathies

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Bell Palsy

    Growth and Development of the Eye

    Examination of the Eye

    Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation

    Disorders of Vision

    Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris

    Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment

    Abnormalities of the Lids

    Disorders of the Lacrimal System

    Disorders of the Conjunctiva

    Abnormalities of the Cornea

    Abnormalities of the Lens

    Disorders of the Uveal Tract

    Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous

    Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve

    Childhood Glaucoma

    Orbital Abnormalities

    Orbital Infections

    Injuries to the Eye

    General Considerations and Evaluation of the Ear

    Hearing Loss

    Congenital Malformations of the Ear

    External Otitis (Otitis Externa)

    Otitis Media

    Acute Mastoiditis

    The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth

    Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone

    Morphology of the Skin

    Dermatologic Evaluation of the Patient

    Cutaenous Manifestations of Systemic Disease

    Multisystemic Medication Reactions

    Principles of Dermatologic Therapy

    Dermatologic Diseases of the Neonate

    Cutaneous Defects

    Ectodermal Dysplasias

    Vascular Disorders

    Cutaneous Nevi

    Hyperpigmented Lesions

    Hypopigmented Lesions

    Vesiculobullous Disorders

    Erythema Multiforme

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Mechanobullous Disorders

    Pemphigus

    Dermatitis Herpetiformis

    Linear Immunoglobulin A Dermatosis (Chronic Bullous Dermatosis of Childhood)

    Eczematous Disorders

    Contact Dermatitis
     .........

    기타 신간의학서적과 의학도서에 관련된 문의사항은 고객센터(02-854-2738) 또는 저희 성보의학서적 홈페이지내 도서문의 게시판에 문의바랍니다.
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